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Linnaeus
1735
2 kài
Haeckel
1866[1]
3 kài
Chatton
1937[2]
2 empires
Copeland
1956[3]
4 kài
Whittaker
1969[4]
5 kài
Woese et al.
1977[5]
6 kài
Woese et al.
1990[6]
3 he̍k
(not treated) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea
Eukaryota Protista Protista Protista Eukarya
Vegetabilia Plantae Fungi Fungi
Plantae Plantae Plantae
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia
  1. E. Haeckel (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, Reimer, Berlin. 
  2. E. Chatton (1937). Titres et travaux scientifiques, Sette, Sottano, Italy. 
  3. H. F. Copeland (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. 
  4. R. H. Whittaker (1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science 163: 150–160. 
  5. C. R. Woese, W. E. Balch, L. J. Magrum, G. E. Fox and R. S. Wolfe (1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution 9: 305–311. 
  6. Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMID 2112744.