Chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k

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Chiàⁿ-pêng ē-kha (ùi tò-chhiú-pêng kàu chiàⁿ-chhiú-pêng) tē-3, tē-2, kap tē-1 tōa-āu-chan ê tiān-kong-phìⁿ, ē-sái khòaⁿ-kìⁿ bô-kâng kai-tōaⁿ ê chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k.

Chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k, ùi phoe-thai sè-pau seng-tióng khai-sí kàu puh-khí ji̍p kháu-khiuⁿ, sī ho̍k-cha̍p ê kòe-têng. Sui-bóng chē-chē bu̍t-chióng (species) ū chhùi-khí, in chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k kah jîn-lūi bô-siáⁿ-mi̍h bô-siâng. Nā-beh-ū khong-kiān ê kháu-khiuⁿ khoân-kéng, tī thai-jî hoat-io̍k ê sek-tòng kai-tōaⁿ lāi-té, khí-iū-chit, khí-pún-chit, khí-kut-chit, kap khí-chiu cho·-chit tio̍h-ài khai-sí hoat-io̍k. Gín-á-khíseⁿ-kiáⁿ-tē lāi-té tē-6 chì tē-8 lé-pài khai-sí hêng-sêng, ah tōa-lâng-khí tī seⁿ-kiáⁿ-tē ê tē-20 lé-pái khai-sí hêng-sêng. [1] Ká-sú chhùi-khí bô tī chit-ê sî-chūn khai-sí hoat-io̍k, in tio̍h bē hoat-io̍k.

Chiok-chē gián-kiù tì-tiōng tī ín-khí chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê koan-kiàn kòe-têng. Tī tē-1 branchial arch ê cho·-chit ū chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k pit-su-iàu ê in-sò· tī--leh, che sī hō·-lâng kóng-hoàn chiap-siū ê koān-tiám. [2]

Khài-iàu[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ.
A: khí-iū-chit khì-koan (enamel organ)
B: chhùi-khí ni-thâu (dental papilla)
C: chhùi-khí lī-pau(dental follicle)

Chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê sī lō·-bóe hêng-sêng chhùi-khí ê chi̍t-tīn sè-pau. [3] Chia-ê sè-pau sī ùi tē-it branchial arch ê gōa-phoe-chân (ectoderm) kap sîn-keng-chiah (neural crest) ê ectomesenchyme ián-thòaⁿ--lâi-ē. [4] Chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê ē hun-hòa chò 3-ê pō·-hūn: khí-iū-chit khì-koan (enamel organ), chhùi-khí ni-thâu (dental papilla), chhùi-khí lī-pau (dental follicle).

Khí-iū-chit khì-koan sī iû gōa-kháu ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe (outer enamel epithelium), lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe (inner enamel epithelium), stellate reticulum, kap stratum intermedium lâi cho·-sêng. [5] Chit-kóa sè-pau sī ameloblast ê khí-goân. Ameloblast chè-chō khí-iū-chit kap reduced enamel epithelium. Gōa-kháu ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe kap lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe sio-kap ê só·-chāi kiò-chò cervical loop.[6] Cervical loop hia ê sè-pau kè-sio̍k ǹg koh-khah chhim ê cho·-chit só·-chāi seng-tióng, chiâⁿ-chò Hertwig's epithelial root sheath, i koat-tēng soah--lo̍h-khì chhùi-khí khí-kha ê khòaⁿ-thâu.

Chhùi-khí ni-thâu ū-hâm ē hoat-tián chò odontoblast ê sè-pau, odontoblast sī hêng-sêng khí-pún-chit ê sè-pau.[7] Chhùi-khí ni-thâu kap lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe chih-chiap ê só·-chāi ē-tit koat-tēng āu--lâi chhùi-khí khí-koan ê hêng-chōng.[8] Chhùi-khí ni-thâu tiong-hng ê mesenchyme sè-pau sī kah chhùi-khí khí-chhóe ê chiâⁿ-hêng ū tī-tāi.

Chhùi-khí lī-pau ē piàn-chò 3-ê chiâⁿ tiōng-iàu ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ: cementoblast, osteoblast, kap fibroblast. Cementoblast sán-seng chhùi-khí khí-kha piáu-bīn ê khí-kut-chit. Osteoblast seⁿ-chhut khí-kha sì-pêng ê khí-chô-kut. Fibroblast hoat-io̍k chhut khí-chiu jūn-tòa, khí-chiu jūn-tòa liân-chiap khí-chô-kut kap khí-kut-chit, choâⁿ kā chhùi-khí kò·-tēng tīàm khí-chô. [9]

Jîn-lūi chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê sî-kan-pió[siu-kái]

Ē-kha chit-kóa pió siá--ê sī jîn-lūi chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê sî-kan. [10] Gín-á-khí thâu-khí-seng kài-hòa ê sî-kan sī ēng seⁿ-kiáⁿ-tē lāi-té ê lé-pāi sò·-bo̍k piáu-sī.

Téng-kiuⁿ (maxillary) chhùi-khí
Gín-á-khí Chiàⁿ
-mn̂g-khí
Chhek
-mn̂g-khí

Kak-khí
Tē-1
āu-chan
Tē-2
āu-chan
Thâu-khí-seng ê kài-hòa 14 lé-pài 16  lé-pài 17 lé-pài 15.5 lé-pài 19 lé-pài
Khí-koan tōa-kàu-chaī 1.5 go̍eh 2.5 go̍eh 9 go̍eh 6 go̍eh 11 go̍eh
Khí-kha tōa-kàu-chaī 1.5 tang 2 tang 3.25 tang 2.5 tang 3 tang
 Ē-kiuⁿ (mandibular) chhùi-khí 
Thâu-khí-seng ê kài-hòa 14 lé-pài 16 lé-pài 17 lé-pài 15.5 lé-pài 18 lé-pài
Khí-koan tōa-kàu-chaī 2.5 go̍eh 3 go̍eh 9 go̍eh 5.5 go̍eh 10 go̍eh
Khí-kha tōa-kàu-chaī 1.5 tang 1.5 tang 3.25 tang 2.5 tang 3 tang


Téng-kiuⁿ chhùi-khí
Tōa-lâng-khí Chiàⁿ
-mn̂g-khí
Chhek
-mn̂g-khí

Kak-khí
Tē-1
sió-āu-chan
Tē-2
sió-āu-chan
Tē-1
tōa-āu-chan
Tē-2
tōa-āu-chan
Tē-3
tōa-āu-chan
Thâu-khí-seng ê kài-hòa 3–4 go̍eh 10–12 go̍eh 4–5 go̍eh 1.5–1.75 tang 2–2.25 tang chhut-sì ê sî 2.5–3 tang 7–9 tang
Khí-koan tōa-kàu-chāi 4–5 tang 4–5 tang 6–7 tang 5–6 tang 6–7 tang 2.5–3 tang 7–8 tang 12–16 tang
Khí-kha tōa-kàu-chāi 10 tang 11 tang 13–15 tang 12–13 tang 12–14 tang 9–10 tang 14–16 tang 18–25 tang
 Ē-kiuⁿ chhùi-khí  
Thâu-khí-seng ê kài-hòa 3–4 go̍eh 3–4 go̍eh 4–5 go̍eh 1.5–2 o̍eh 2.25–2.5 o̍eh chhut-sì ê sî 2.5–3 tang 8–10 tang
Khí-koan tōa-kàu-chāi 4–5 tang 4–5 tang 6–7 tang 5–6 tang 6–7 tang 2.5–3 tang 7–8 tang 12–16 tang
Khí-kha tōa-kàu-chāi 9 tang 10 tang 12–14 tang 12–13 tang 13–14 tang 9–10 tang 14–15 tang 18–25 tang

Chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê ê hoat-io̍k[siu-kái]

Tī hàm-kiàⁿ ē-té ē-sái kòaⁿ--kìⁿ ê chhùi-khí chiâⁿ-hêng ê siāng-khí-seng 1-pō· sī vestibular lamina kap dental lamina ê khu-pia̍t. Dental lamina liân-kiat hoat-io̍k ê chhùi-khí-íⁿ kap kháu-khiuⁿ ê siōng-phôe-chân, chit-ê liân-kiat î-chhî bē-té ê 1-tōaⁿ sî-kan. [11]

Chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k thong-siông hun-chò ē-kha kúi-ê kai-tōaⁿ: íⁿ-gê kî, bō-á kî, lêng-liang kî, kap siāng-lo̍h-bóe ê sêng-se̍k kî. Chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê hun-kî sī siūⁿ-beh kā sio-liân-soah hoat-seng ê kái-piàn chò hun-lūi; m̄-koh tháu-té chiâⁿ-oh koat-tēng 1-khí hoat-io̍k tiong ê chhùi-khí sī chám-jiân ūi-tī tó-chi̍t-ê khám-chām. [12] Tio̍h-sǹg-sī kāng 1-khí hoat-io̍k tiong ê chhùi-khí, in-ūi bô-kâng phìⁿ ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ ê koan-hē, sú-tit hun-kî ê koat-tēng pìⁿ-chiâⁿ kēng-ka khùn-lân, ē chhut-hiān bô-kâng hun-kî ê kiat-kó.

Íⁿ-gê kî[siu-kái]

Íⁿ-gê kî chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê ê sè-pau pâi-lia̍t iáu-koh chiâⁿ hùn-loān. Chit-ê kai-tōaⁿ ê khai-sí sī siōng-phôe sè-pau cheng-seng chìn-ji̍p khí-chô-kut ê ectomesenchyme ê sî-chūn. [13] Chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê pún-sin sī dental lamina boa̍t-toan ê 1-tīn sè-pau.

Bō-á kî[siu-kái]

Bō-á kî chhùi-khí ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ.

Tī bō-á kî, chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê ê sè-pau chiah khai-sí pâi-lia̍t. Chi̍t-kóa ectomesenchyme sè-pau thêng-chí sán-seng sè-pau-gōa ê ki-chit (extracellular substances), án-ne tì-sú in e-kheh chi̍p-chi̍p chò-hóe, hông kiò-chò chhùi-khí ni-thâu. Tī chit-ê sî-chūn, chhùi-khí ni-thâu piⁿ-á ê sè-pau pâi-lia̍t chiâⁿ-chò bō-á ê hêng-chōng, kiò-chò khí-iū-chit khì-koan (ū-lâng kā kiò-chò khí-pún-chit khì-koan). Koh-ū lēng-gōa chi̍t-tīn ectomesenchyme sè-pau sio-chio óa-kīn chò-hóe, pau-ûi tī khí-iū-chit khì-koan kap chhùi-khí ni-thâu ê kho·-tau. Soah--lo̍h-lâi, khí-iū-chit khì-koan ē sán-seng khí-iū-chit, chhùi-khí ni-thâu ē sán-seng khí-pún-chit kap khí-chhóe, ah chhùi-khí lī-pau ē sán-seng chhùi-khí só·-ū ê chi-chhî kò·-chō. [14]

Tī leng-liang kî khah-chá ê sî-chūn chhùi-khí ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ.

Lêng-liang kî[siu-kái]

Lêng-liang kî hoat-seng cho·-chit hun-hòa kap hêng-thāi hun-hòa. Khí-iū-chit khì-koan tī chit-sî sī lêng-liang-á hêng, i tāi-pō·-hūn ê sè-pau seⁿ tio̍h chhiūⁿ thiⁿ-chhiⁿ, kiò-chò stellate reticulum. [15] Khí-iū-chit khì-koan kho·-tau ê sè-pau so·-khui chò 3-chân. Khí-iū-chit khì-koan gōa-kháu ê cuboidal cell kìo-chò gōa-kháu ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe. [16] Khí-iū-chit kap chhùi-khí ni-thâu sio-chiap ê hit chân sè-pau kiò-chò lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe. Lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe kap stellate reticulum chi-kan hit-chân kiò-chò stratum intermedium. Gōa-kháu ê kap lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe sio-chiap ê só·-chāi hêng-sêng 1-ê îⁿ-kho·-á, kiò-chò cervical loop. [17]

Tī chit-ê khám-chām iáu-ū hoat-seng kî-thaⁿ ê tāi-chì. Dental lamina lia̍t-kai, hoat-io̍k tiong ê chhùi-khí kah chhùi-khiuⁿ ê siōng-phôe oân-choân hun-khui; tio̍h-kàu chhùi-khí puh-gê chhut--lâi, chit lióng-chiá chiah-koh sio-tú.[18]

Tī lêng-liang kî khah-òaⁿ ê sî-chūn chhùi-khí ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ. Chhiáⁿ chù-ì téng-koân dental lamina ê lia̍t-kái siau-sit.

Chhùi-khí ê khí-koan hêng-hâi siū-tio̍h lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe ê hêng-chōng ê éng-hióng, tio̍h-sī hoat-seng tī chit-ê khám-chām. Chhùi--nih só·-ū ê chhùi-khí lóng-ē chìn-hêng kāng-khoán ê chit-ê kòe-têng; lán iáu-sī bô khak-tēng ūi-siáⁿ-mi̍h chhùi-khí ē sán-seng koh-iūⁿ ê khí-koan hêng-hâi, hó-pí-kóng, mn̂g-khi kap kak-khí. Ū nn̄g-ê chú-iàu ê ké-soat. "'Field model'" the̍h-chhut lí-lūn kóng, chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k kòe-têng tiong ê ectomesenchyme ū chhùi-khí koh-iūⁿ hêng-hâi ê sêng-hun. Koat-tēng bó·-1-khoán te̍k-sû chhùi-khí hêng-hâi ê sêng-hun, hó-chhan-chhiūⁿ mn̂g-khí, kan-taⁿ pó-liû tī chhùi-khiuⁿ bó·-mi̍h só·-chaī, kî-thaⁿ só·-chāi--ê lóng chiâⁿ-kín tio̍h siau-sit bô--khì. Ia̍h-tio̍h-sī kóng, hó-pí, "incisor field" ū iù-sú chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k chò mn̂g-khí ê in-sò·, chit-ê field kan-taⁿ chi̍p-tiong lâi-kàu mn̂g-khí ê khu-he̍k, ah tī kak-khí ê khu-he̍k tio̍h liâm-mi bô--khì. Lēng-1-ê chú-iàu ê ké-soat sī "'clone model"', i kóng, siōng-phôe an-pâi chí-hui 1-tī ectomesenchymal cells lâi sán-seng koh-iūⁿ ê chhùi-khí. Chit-tīn ê sè-pau, kìo-chò clone, siâⁿ-koái dental lamina chìn-hêng chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k, tì-sú chhùi-khí íⁿ-gê ê sán-seng. Dental lamina tiàm-tī chit-ê kiò-chò "progress zone" ê só·-chāi kè-sio̍k seng-tióng. Piān-nā progress zone sóa-khì kī-lî tē-1-ê chhùi-khí-íⁿ ū 1-té--á ê só·-chāi, tē-2-ê chhùi-khí íⁿ-á tio̍h khai-sí tī-hia hoat-io̍k. Chit nn̄g-ê ké-soat bô tiāⁿ-tio̍h-sī hō·-siong lia̍h-gōa tú-te̍k--ê, iáu-bōe kóng-hoān hông chiap-siū ê 1-ê khòaⁿ-hoat sī: chit nn̄g-ê ké-soat tī bô-kâng ê sî-kan-tiám éng-hióng tio̍h chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k.[19]

Tī chit-ê kai-tōaⁿ, kî-thaⁿ hoat-seng ê chhùi-khí ê kò·-chō ū enamel knots, enamel cords, kap enamel niche.[20]

Hoat-io̍k tiong ngē cho·-chit ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ. Ameloblast tng-leh sán-seng khí-iū-chit, ah odontoblast tng-leh sán-seng khí-pún-chit.

Khí-koan kî[siu-kái]

Chit-ê sî-kî kìo-chò khí-koan kî he̍k sêng-sek kî, ngē cho·-chit chhan-chhiūⁿ khí-iū-chit kap khí-pún-chit tio̍h hoat-seng tī chit-kî. Tiōng-iàu ê sè-pau piàn-hòa hoat-seng tī chit-chūn. Tī téng-1-kî lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe khoài-sok tōa-liōng hun-lia̍t, kiò-chò mitosis, cheng-kā chhùi-khì-íⁿ ê tōa-sió. M̄-koh tī chit-kî, chhùi-khí ê kā-lûn nā sán-seng liáu-āu, chit-ê ūi-tì ê mitosis tio̍h thêng-chí--lo̍h-lâi. Tāi-seng kài-hòa ê ngē cho·-chit tio̍h hoat-seng tī chia. Kâng chit-ê sî-chūn, lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe sè-pau ê gōa-hêng ùi cuboidal choán-chò columnar. Chia-ê sè-pau ê sè-pau-he̍k sóa-ūi óa-khīn stratum intermedium, lî-khui chhùi-khí ni-thâu. [21]

Chhùi-khí ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ. Chhiáⁿ chù-ì khí-pún-chit ê tn̂g-kóng-á hêng gōa-khoán.
A: khí-iū-chit
B: khí-pún-chit

Chhùi-khí ni-thâu óa-kīn lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe hit-chân sè-pau thu̍t-jiân piàn-tōa, hun-hòa chò odontoblast, in sī sán-seng khí-pún-chit ê sè-pau.[22] Gián-kiù-chiá siong-sìn, lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe nā-bô hoat-seng piàn-hòa, odontoblast tio̍h bē chhut-hiàn. Ùi kā-lun ê chiam-toan hū-kīn, lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe khai-sí piàn-hòa kap odontoblast khai-sí chhut-hiàn, odontoblast hun-pì 1-chióng bu̍t-chit, organic matrix, kàu in-ê sì-chiu-ûi. Chit-chióng organic matrix ū-hâm hêng-sêng khí-pún-chit su-iàu ê bu̍t-chit. Odontoblast ná tîm-chek organic matrix, ná sóa-ūi khì chhùi-khí ni-thâu ê tiong-hng. In-chhú, kah khí-iū-chit bô-siâng, khí-pún-chit sī ùi chhùi-khí ê khah gōa-kháu ǹg lāi-té ta̍uh-ta̍uh-á 1-chân koh 1-chân lâi hêng-sêng. Odontoblast iân-nā sóa ùi tiong-hng, iân-nā kā sè-pau-chit ê chhun-tn̂g (odontoblastic process) lâu tī kha-chhng-āu. Tī hián-bî-kiàⁿ só· khòaⁿ-tio̍h ê chit-chióng to̍k-te̍k tn̂g-kóng-á-hêng ê khí-pún-chit gōa-khoán, sī khí-pún-chit tiàm chia-ê chhun-tn̂g sì-kho·-tau tîm-chek sán-seng ê kiat-kó.[23] Khí-pún-chit khai-sí sán-seng liáu-āu, lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe sè-pau mā khai-sí hun-pì organic matrix. Chia-ê matrix liâm-mi kài-hòa chiâⁿ-chò chhùi-khí ê khí-iū-chit. Khí-pún-chit gōa-kháu sī ameloblast, ameloblast chè-chō khí-iū-chit; in-chhú, khí-iū-chit sī ǹg gōa-kháu 1-têng 1-têng ka-thiⁿ tī hoat-io̍k ê chhùi-khí gōa-piáu-bīn.

Ngē cho·-chit ê sán-seng[siu-kái]

Hoat-io̍k tiong ê chhùi-khí ê chhiat-phìⁿ

Khí-iū-chit[siu-kái]

Chhiáⁿ khòaⁿ Amelogenesis hit phiⁿ bûn-chiuⁿ

Khí-iū-chit ê sán-seng kiò-chò amelogenesis, hoat-seng tī chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê khí-koan kî. Pâi-thè ín-chhōa (reciprocal induction) sòe-bêng khí-pún-chit ê sán-seng kap khí-iū-chit ê sán-seng chi-kan ê koan-hē; khí-pún-chit tiāⁿ-tio̍h-tio̍h ài tāi-seng khí-iū-chit sán-seng. Khí-iū-chit ê sán-seng hun-chò 2-ê kai-tōaⁿ: hun-pì sî-kî kap sêng-sek sî-kî.[24] Hun-pì sî-kî n̄g-pe̍h-chit kap organic matrix sán-seng pō·-hūn kài-hòa ê khí-iū-chit; sêng-sek sî-kî oân-sêng khí-iū-chit ê kài-hòa.

Tī hun-pì sî-kî, ameloblast sek-hòng chhut khí-iū-chit nn̄g-pe̍h-chit, che kò·-sêng khí-iū-chit ê matrix, soah--lo̍h-lâi, tī kàⁿ-sò· alkaline phosphatase ê chok-iōng chi-hā, pō·-hūn kài-hòa.[25] Chit-ê kài-hòa cho·-chit ê chhut-hiān, tāi-iok sī thai-īn ê tē-3 he̍k tē-4 kò·-goe̍h hia, sī khí-iū-chit tī sin-thé ê thâu-1-kái chhut-hiān. Ameloblast tī chhùi-khí kā-lun ê só·-chāi khai-sí tîm-chek khí-iū-chit. Khí-iū-chit ùi chhùi-khí tiong-hng ǹg gōa-kháu kè-sio̍k tîm-chek sán-seng.

Tī sêng-sek sî-kî, ameloblast kā ēng tī khí-iū-chit hêng-sêng ê 1-kóa bu̍t-chit ùi khí-iū-chit chah--chhut-lâi. In-chhú, ameloblast ê kong-lêng ùi khí-iū-chit seng-sán, choán-ōaⁿ chò ūn-su bu̍t-chit. Tī chit-ê sî-kî pī ameloblast ūn-su tiāu ê bu̍t-chit sī nn̄g-pe̍h-chit, chū-án-ne lâi oân-sêng kài-hòa. Ū koan-hē ê nn̄g-pe̍h-chit sī amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin, kap tuftelin.[26]Kàu chit-ê sî-kî ê siāng-bóe-á, khí-iū-chit ê kài-hòa chiah kiat-sok.

Khí-pún-chit[siu-kái]

Chhiáⁿ khòaⁿ Dentinogenesis chit phiⁿ bûn-chiuⁿ

Khí-pún-chit ê sán-seng kiò-chò dentinogenesis, sī tī chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k khí-koan kî siāng tāi-seng ē-sái khak-jīn ê te̍k-cheng. Khí-pún-chit ê sán-seng tiāⁿ-tio̍h ài tāi-seng khí-iū-chit ê sán-seng . Bô-kâng khám-chām sán-seng bô-kâng ê khí-pún-chit: mantle dentin, primary dentin, secondary dentin, kap tertiary dentin.

Odontoblast, sán-seng khí-pún-chit ê sè-pau, sī ùi chhùi-khí ni-thâu ê sè-pau hun-hòa lâi ê. In tiàm lāi-té ê khí-iū-chit siōng-phôe hia khai-sí hun-pì organic matrix, siāng chiap-kīn bóe--á kā-lun beh chhut-hiàn ê só·-chāi siāng-chá hun-pì. Organic matrix ū-hâm chho·-tōa ti̍t-kèng ê ka-goân chhiam-ûi (ti̍t-kèng 0.1-0.2 μm).[27] Odontoblast khai-sí ǹg chhùi-khí tiong-hng î-sóa, kha-chiah-āu ûi-liû kiò-chò odontoblast process ê chhun-tn̂g.[28] Che odontoblast process ín-khí hydroxyapatite cheng-thé ê hun-pì kap ki-chit ê kài-hòa. Chit-tah ê kài-hòa kiò-chò mantle khí-pún-chit, tāi-iok 150 μm kāu.[29]

Mantle khí-pún-chit sī ùi chhùi-khí ni-thâu goân-té ê ki-chit hia sán-seng--ê. Goân-seng khí-pún-chit (primary dentin) ê sán-seng kòe-têng tio̍h kah mantle khí-pún-chit ê bô-kâng. Odontoblast ê thé-hêng piàn-tōa, sio-kheh chò-hóe, ē-tàng lī-iōng the̍h-lâi kài-hòa ê sè-pau-gōa bu̍t-chit kiám-chió, kái-iû chū-sin sán-seng chè-chō. Lēng-gōa, hàn-chháu khah-tōa ê odontoblast ê ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h (collagen) hun-pì liōng piàn-chió, sú-tit chhut-hiàn pâi-lia̍t kēng-ka ba̍t-cha̍t ê heterogenous neucleation ê kài-hòa. Kî-thaⁿ ê bu̍t-chit, hó-pí lipid, phosphoprotein, phospholipid mā-ū hun-pì.[30] Jī-chhù khí-pún-chit (secondary dentin) sī khí-kha sêng-hêng liáu-āu chiah sán-seng--ê, i sán-seng ê sok-tō· khah-bān. I sán-seng ê sok-tō· mā-bô it-tì, chiap-kīn khí-koan ê só·-chāi sán-seng ê sok-tō· khah-kín.[31] I ê sán-seng sī kui-sì-lâng--ê, só·-í nî-hòe jú-tōa ê lâng khí-chhóe-khiuⁿ jú-sè. [32] Sam-chhù khí-pún-chit (tertiary dentin), koh kiò-chò siu-ho̍k-sèng khí-pún-chit (reparative dentin), sī siū-tio̍h chhì-khek, chhan-chhiūⁿ bôa-sún (attrition) he̍k chiù-khí, lâi sán-seng--ê.[33]

Khí-kha ê hûiⁿ-chhiat-phìⁿ. Chhiáⁿ chù-ì thang-kng, bô sè-pau ê khí-kut-chit.
A: khí-pún-chit
B: khí-kut-chit

Khí-kut-chit[siu-kái]

Khí-kut-chit ê hêng-sêng kiò-chò cementogenesis, hoat-seng tī chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê khah lo̍h-bóe. Cementoblast sī hū-chek sán-seng khí-kut-chit ê sè-pau. Ū 2-chióng khí-pún-chit: ū sè-pau--ê kap bô sè-pau--ê. [34]

Bô sè-pau khí-kut-chit tāi-seng sán-seng. Cementoblast sī ùi chhùi-khí lī-pau sè-pau hun-hòa chhut--lâi-ê. Cementoblast hun-pì iù-si ê ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h chhiam-ûi. Che chhiam-ûi í 90 tō· ê kak-tō· chhah tī khí-kha piáu-bīn. Jiân-āu cementoblast khai-sí sóa lî-khui khí-kha , koh chè-chō khah-chē ê ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h lâi ka-tn̂g kap ka-chho· chhiam-ûi. Hui-ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h ê nn̄g-pe̍h-chit, chhan-chhiūⁿ bone sialoprotein, kap osteocalcin mā-ū hun-pì.[35] Bô sè-pau khí-kut-chit hâm-ū nn̄g-pe̍h-chit kap chhiam-ûi ki-chit. Khí-kut-chit ná kài-hòa, cementoblast ná sóa-lî-khui khí-kut-chit, ah chhah tī khí-kha piáu-bīn ê chhiam-ûi chòe-āu kah khí-chiu jūn-tòa kiat-ha̍p chò-hóe.

Ū sè-pau ê khí-kut-chit tī chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k soah-kó· kap chhùi-khí chham tùi-kiuⁿ (opposite arch) chhùi-khí sio-tú-tio̍h chiah khai-sí sán-seng. [36] Chit-khoán khí-kut-chit khûn-tîⁿ tī khí-chiu jūn-tòa ê chhiam-ûi piⁿ-á lâi sán-seng. Chè-chō ū sè-pau khí-kut-chit ê cementoblast chòe-āu pī ka-tī chè-chō ê khí-kut-chit pau-ûi--khí-lâi.

Chè-chō ū sè-pau khí-kut-chit ê cementoblast kap chè-chō bô sè-pau khí-kut-chit ê cementoblast ê lâi-goân bô-kâng. Chú-iàu ê lí-lūn jīn-ûi, chè-chō ū sè-pau khí-kut-chit ê sè-pau lâi-chū hū-kīn ê kut-thâu, chè-chō bô sè-pau khí-kut-chit ê sè-pau lâi-chū chhùi-khí lī-pau. [37] Ko·-chi̍t-ki khí-kha ê chhùi-khí siâng-chāi bô ū sè-pau ê khí-kut-chit. [38]sió-āu-chan kap tōa-āu-chan, ū sè-pau khí-kut-chit kan-taⁿ hun-pò· tī khí-kha bo̍at-toan kap khí-kha hun-chhe ê só·-chāi.

Tng-beh puh-gê ji̍p kháu-khiuⁿ chhùi-khí ê cho·-chit chhiat-phìⁿ.
A: chhùi-khí
B: khí-gîn
C: kut-thâu
D: khí-chiu jūn-tòa

Khí-chiu cho·-chit ê hêng-sêng[siu-kái]

Khí-chiu cho·-chit, sī chhùi-khí ê chi-chhî kò·-chō, pau-koat ū khí-kut-chit, khí-chiu jūn-tòa, khí-gîn, kap khí-chô-kut. Chit lāi-té kan-taⁿ khí-kut-chit sī chhùi-khí ê 1-pō·-hūn. Khí-chô-kut kā chhùi-khí khí-kha pau--khí-lâi hêng-sêng khí-chô (socket), thê-kiong chì-chái ê kong-lêng. Khí-chiu jūn-tòa liân-chiap khí-chô-kut kàu khí-kut-chit, ah khí-gîn pau-ho̍k tī khí-chô-kut ê gōa-kháu.

Khí-chiu jūn-tòa[siu-kái]

Ùi chhùi-khí lī-pau lâi ê sè-pau sán-seng khí-chiu jūn-tòa (PDL). Gín-á-khí kap tōa-lâng-khí ê khí-iu jūn-tòa hoat-seng ê kòe-têng bô-kâng, bô-kâng tōng-bu̍t bu̍t-chéng ê jūn-tòa hoat-seng mā bô-kâng. [39] Ùi chhùi-khí lī-pau lâi ê jūn-tòa fibroblast chè-chō khí-chiu jūn-tòa. Chit-kóa fibroblast só· hun-pì ê ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h, kah hū-kīn ê khí-chô-kut kap khí-kut-chit ê chhiam-ûi saⁿ-kap chò-hóe. [40] Tī chhùi-khí puh-gê ê kòe-têng tiong, chit-chióng kau-hō·-chok-iōng sán-seng 1-chióng attachment. Occlusion, chhùi-khí ê pâi-lia̍t kap chhùi-khí án-chóaⁿ chham tùi-kiuⁿ chhùi-khí chih-chiap, kè-sio̍k éng-hióng khí-chiu jūn-tòa ê hêng-sêng. Khí-chiu jūn-tòa lo̍k-siok sán-seng, àn-chiàu kiâⁿ-hiòng ê bô-kâng, ē-sái hun chò kúi-cho·: than-pêⁿ ê, than-chhoa̍h ê, kap khûn-se̍h ê. [41]

Khí-chô-kut[siu-kái]

Tng khí-kha kap khí-kut-chit khai-sí sán-seng, khí-chô-kut mā khai-sí hoat-io̍k. Sin-khu sán-seng kut-thâu ê sè-pau kiò-chò osteoblast. Sán-seng khí-chô-kut ê osteoblast sī ùi chhùi-khí lī-pau lâi--ê. [42] Kah sin-khu kî-thaⁿ kut-thâu sio-siâng, khí-chô-kut mā-ē modify. Osteoblast sán-seng kut-thâu, ah osteoclast soah phò-hāi kut-thâu, iû-kî sī chhùi-khí siū-tio̍h le̍k-liōng ê sî. [43] Chit-chióng phò-hāi kip-siu kut-thâu ê chêng-hêng ē hoat-seng tī chhùi-khí chhiâu-chiàⁿ ê kòe-têng tiong. Chhùi-khí beh sóa tin-tāng ê hong-siòng ê kut-thâu siū-tio̍h ap-sok (compression), hit-tah ê osteoclast ē khah-chē, kiat-kó kut-thâu khip-siu. Tian-tó-péng ê sī, chhùi-khí beh oán-lî ê hit-pêng, in-ūi khí-chiu jūn-tòa ê khiú-lak, siū-tio̍h tension, osteblast ê sò·-bo̍k cheng-ka, kiat-kó kut-thâu lâi hêng-sêng.

Khí-gîn[siu-kái]

Khí-gîn kah chhùi-khí sio chih-chiap ê só·-chāi kiò-chò chhùi-khí-khí-gîn chih-chiap (dentogingival junction). Chit-ê chih-chiap ū saⁿ-ê siōng-phôe chióng-lūi: khí-gîn siōng-phôe, khí-gîn-kau siōng-phôe, kap chih-chiap siōng-phôe (gingival, sulcular, and junctional epithelium). Chit saⁿ chióng ê siōng-phôe sī ùi 1-tīn kiò-chò epithelial cuff ê sè-pau, ūi-tī chhùi-khí kap chhùi-khiuⁿ chi-kan, lâi--ê. [44]

Iú-koan khí-gîn sán-seng ê tāi-chì iáu-bōe oân-choân liáu-kái, m̄-koh, lán lóng chāi-iáⁿ hemidesmosomes hêng-sêng tī chih-chiap siōng-phôe kap chhùi-khí chi-kan, sī hū-chek primary epithelial attachment ê tiōng-iàu kak-sek. [45]

Sîn-keng kap hoeh-kńg ê hêng-sêng[siu-kái]

Sin-khu ê sîn-keng kap hoeh-kńg tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ kiâⁿ tàu-tīn, in mā chhiâng-chāi ēng sio-siâng ê hong-sek tâng-chê lâi hêng-sêng. Put-kò, chhùi-khí ê sîn-keng kap hoeh-kńg hêng-sêng chêng-hêng bô kāng-khoán, in-ūi in hoat-io̍k ê sok-tō· bô-kâng. [46]

Sîn-keng ê hêng-sêng[siu-kái]

Tī chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ê bō-á kî, sîn-keng chhiam-ûi khai-sí chiap-kīn chhùi-khí, chhun-ji̍p chhùi-khí lī-pau. Jiân-āu, sîn-keng chhiam-ûi pau-ûi chhùi-khí-ìⁿ hoat-tián--khí-lâi. Tán khí-pún-chit khai-sí hoat-io̍k, chhiam-ûi koh chhun-ji̍p chhùi-khí ni-thâu lāi-té. Sîn-keng bē seⁿ-thòaⁿ ji̍p khí-iū-chit khì-koan. [47]

Hoeh-kńg ê hêng-sêng[siu-kái]

Tī bō-á kî, hoeh-kńg seng-tióng ji̍p chhùi-khí lī-pau kap chhùi-khí ni-thâu. [48] Kui-cho· ê hoeh-kńg hêng-sêng tī chhùi-khí ni-thâu ê ji̍p-kháu. Tī khí-koan kî tú-khai-sí, hoeh-kńg ê sò·-liōng ta̍t-kàu siāng-chē, a̍h chhùi-khí ni-thâu chiong-kî-bóe hêng-sêng khí-chhóe. Ùi siàu-liân kàu lāu, chhùi-khí khí-chhóe ê thé-chek it-ti̍t leh kiám-chió, ia̍h-tio̍h-sī nî-kí jú-tōa, hoeh-sio̍h ê kiong-kip jú-chió. [49] Khí-iū-chit khì-koan bô hoeh-kńg, in-ūi i sī siōng-phôe. Khí-iū-chit kap khí-pún-chit ê kài-hòa cho·-chit bô su-iàu hoeh-sio̍h thê-kiong êng-ióng.

Chhùi-khí ê puh-gê[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí puh-gê ê ki-chè sī ho̍k-cha̍p ê kòe-têng, iáu-bô chiâⁿ hōe-chê ê jīn-tēng. [50] Chi̍t-kóa it-poaⁿ jīn-ûi ê, m̄-koh í-keng pī chèng-bêng m̄-tio̍h ê lí-lūn ū: (1)khí-kha ê seng-tióng kā chhùi-khí thui-sak ji̍p kháu-khiuⁿ, (2)chhùi-khí pīⁿ-á ê kut-thâu seng-tióng kā chhùi-khí thui-sak chhut-khì--ê, (3) hoeh-kńg ê ap-le̍k kā chhùi-khí sak--chhut-khì-ê, (4) tháu-thoah hiân-tiàu kā chhùi-khí sak--khí-lih-ê.[51] Tháu-thoah hiân-tiàu ê lí-lūn, Harry Sicher tāi-seng the̍h-chhut, ùi 1930 nî-tāi kàu 1950 nî-tāi pī kóng-hoàn thoân-siū. Chit-ê lí-lūn ká-siat ū jūn-tòa tī chhùi-khí ē-kha, kah chhùi-khí ê bêng-hoat ū-koan-hē. Sicher kóng i ū tī hàm-kiàⁿ khòaⁿ--kìⁿ, m̄-koh āu--lâi soah hoat-hiān he sī chhiat-phìⁿ chè-chō kòa-têng tiong hoat-seng ê jîn-ûi-hiān-siōng (artifact). [52]

Hiān-chú-sî siāng sî-kiâⁿ ê lí-lūn sī: sui-bóng kúi-á-ê le̍k-liōng kah chhùi-khí puh-gê ū tī-tāi, khí-chiu jūn-tòa the̍h-kiong chú-iàu ê puh-gê tōng-liōng. Lí-lūn-ka ká-siat kóng, thàu-kòe khí-chiu jūn-tòa ê ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h chhiam-ûi ê siu-sok kap sio-chhé liân-kiat, í-ki̍p in ê fibroblast ê khiú-giú, khí-chiu jūn-tòa chhiok-sú chhùi-khí ê hoat-chhut. [53]

Sui-bóng ta̍k-ke-lâng chhùi-khí puh-gê ê sî-kan ū-bān ū-kín, puh-gê iah-sī ū 1-ê tāi-khài ê sî-kan-pió. Jîn-lūi piau-chún-siōng ū 20-khí gín-á-khí kap 32-khí tōa-lâng-khí. [54] Chhùi-khí puh-gê ū 3-ê kai-tōaⁿ. Tāi-seng sī gín-á-khí khí-lia̍t, kan-taⁿ ū gín-á-khí chûn-chāi. Nā-sī tōa-lâng-khí khai-sí puh-gê, tio̍h chìn-ji̍p hùn-ha̍p khí-lia̍t. Gín-á-khí nā choân-pō· thǹg-khí, tio̍h kiò-chò tōa-lâng-khí khí-lia̍t.

Gín-á-khí khí-lia̍t khai-sí tī ē-kiuⁿ tiong-mn̂g-khí puh-gê, tāi-iok sī chhut-sì āu 8 kò·-goe̍h, it-ti̍t kàu tē-1 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan puh-gê, tāi-iok sī 6 hōe ê sî. [55] Gín-á-khí hoat-khí ê sūn-sū it-poaⁿ sī: (1) tiong-mn̂g-khí, (2) chhek-mn̂g-khí, (3) tē-1 āu-chan, (4) kak-khí, (5) tē-2 āu-chan. [56] Iah-ū 1-ê kui-chek sī: múi pòaⁿ-tang hoat 4-khí, ē-kiuⁿ--ê seng-hoat , téng-kiuⁿ--ê āu-hoat, cha-bó·--ê hoat-khí pí cha-po·--ê chá. [57] Tī gín-á-khí khí-lia̍t ê sî-chūn, tōa-lâng-khí ê chhùi-khí-ìⁿ tī gín-á-khí ē-kha hoat-iok.

Hùn-ha̍k khí-lia̍t khai-sí tī 6 hòe tē-1 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan puh-gê ê sî, kiat-sok tī 12 hòe chòe-āu 1-khí ni-khí thǹg-khí. [58] Téng-kiuⁿ éng-kiú-khí ê puh-gê sūn-sū kah ē-kiuⁿ bô-kâng. Téng-kiuⁿ éng-kiú-khí ê puh-gê sūn-sū sī: (1) tē-1 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan (2) éng-kiú tiong-mn̂g-khí, (3) éng-kiú chhek-mn̂g-khí, (4) tē-1 éng-kiú sió-āu-chan, (5) tē-2 eńg-kiú sió-āu-chan, (6) éng-kiú kak-khí, (7) tē-2 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan, kap (8) tē-3 éng-kiú tāo-āu-chan. Ē-kiuⁿ éng-kiú-khí ê puh-gê sūn-sū sī: (1) tē-1 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan (2) tiong-mn̂g-khí, (3) éng-kiú chhek-mn̂g-khí, (4) éng-kiú kak-khí, (5) tē-1 éng-kiú sió-āu-chan, (6) tē-2 eńg-kiú sió-āu-chan, (7) tē-2 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan, and (8) tē-3 éng-kiú tāo-āu-chan. In-ūi gín-á-khí bô sió-āu-chan, só·-í gín-á-khí āu-chan sī iû tōa-lâng-khí ê sió-āu-chan chhú-tāi. [59] Ká-sú kóng gín-á-khí thǹg-khí a̍h tōa-lâng-khí iáu-bōe chún-pī beh hoat--chhut-lâi, ū 1-kóa ūi-tī tī āu-bīn ê chhùi-khí ē sóa-î hióng-chêng, tì-sú khong-kan spòng-sit. [60] Án-ne ē ín-khí chhùi-khí e-khoeh, he̍k-chiá-sī hoat-chhut--lâi ê chhùi-khí hoat-oai--khì, kiò-chò malocclusion.

Tōa-lâng-khí khí-lia̍t sī tī 11 hōe he̍k 12 hōe, siāng-lo̍h-bóe ê gín-á-khí thǹg-khí liáu, kàu só·-ū ê chhùi-khí thǹg-khí ûi-chí.

Gín-á-khí kap tōa-lâng-khí hoat-khí ê sî-kan [61]
Gín-á-khí
Tiong
-mn̂g-khí
Chhek
-mn̂g-khí

Kak-khí
Tē-1
sió-āu-chan
Tē-2
sió-āu-chan
Tē-1
tōa-āu-chan
Tē-2
tōa-āu-chan
Tē-3
tōa-āu-chan
Téng-kiuⁿ ê chhùi-khí 10 goe̍h 11 goe̍h 19 goe̍h 16 goe̍h 29 goe̍h
Ē-kiuⁿ ê chhùi-khí 8 goe̍h 13 goe̍h 20 goe̍h 16 goe̍h 27 goe̍h
Tōa-lâng-khí
Tiong
-mn̂g-khí
Chhek
-mn̂g-khí

Kak-khí
Tē-1
sió-āu-chan
Tē-2
sió-āu-chan
Tē-1
tōa-āu-chan
Tē-2
tōa-āu-chan
Tē-3
tōa-āu-chan
Téng-kiuⁿ ê chhùi-khí 7–8 tang 8–9 tang 11–12 tang 10–11 tang 10–12 tang 6–7 tang 12–13 tang 17–21 tang
Ē-kiuⁿ ê chhùi-khí 6–7 tang 7–8 tang 9–10 tang 10–12 tang 11–12 tang 6–7 tang 11–13  tang 7–21 tang

Êng-ióng kap chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k[siu-kái]

Kah sin-thé kî-thaⁿ só·-chāi ê hoat-io̍k seng-tióng sio-siâng, êng-ióng tùi chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k ū éng-hióng. Beh tit-tio̍h khong-kiān ê chhùi-khí su-iàu ê êng-ióng-mi̍h pau-koat kài (calcium), phosphorus, fluoride kap ûi-seng-sò· A, C kap D. [62] Kài kap phosphorus sī chè-chō hydroxyapatite cheng-thé só· su-iàu ê, in tī hoeh-sio̍h ê lông-tō· sī khò ûi-seng-sò· D lâi î-chhî. Ûi-seng-sò· A sī sán-seng keratin su-iàu ê. Vitamin C kap ka-goân-nn̄g-pe̍h ū-koan-hē. Fluoride chham-ji̍p khì hydroxyapatite cheng-thé, hō· chhùi-khí khah-ū tòng-thâu , khah-bē chiù-khí. [63]

Khiàm-khoat chia-ê éng-ióng-mi̍h tùi chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k ū chiâⁿ-chē ê éng-hióng. [64] Siat-sú kài, phosphorus kap vitamin D bô-kàu-gia̍h, chhùi-khí ê kài-hòa ē khah bô-kàu, khah-lám. Khoat-ho̍at vitamin A ē ín-khí khí-iū-chit ê khoat-ha̍t. Fluoride ê khiàm-khoeh, tī chhùi-khí tú-tio̍h sng ê khoân-khéng, ē sú chhùi-khí cheng-ka thoat-kài, iân-chhiân koh-kài-hòa ê chìn-hêng. Siōng-chhiáⁿ, tī chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k tiong, kòe-liōng ê fluoride ē tì-sú chhùi-khí hu̍t-tiòng-to̍k (dental fluorosis).

Koh-iūⁿ[siu-kái]

Ū chiok-chē kah chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k iú-koan ê koh-iūⁿ.

Bô-khí kî-hêng (anodontia) sī goân-choân bô hoat-io̍k chhùi-khí, a̍h Khoat-khí kî-hêng (hypodontia) sī khiàm-ha̍t chi̍t-kóa chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k. Bô-khí sī chiok hán tit khoàⁿ--kìⁿ-ê, siāng-chiap hoat-hiān tī hipohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia ê chêng-hêng, a̍h ha̍t-khí soah-sī siāng-chiap khòaⁿ--tio̍h ê chhuì-khí hoat-io̍k koh-iūⁿ, éng-hióng tio̍h 3.5–8.0% ê jîn-kháu (iah-bōe pau-koat tē-3 tōa-āu-chan). Khiàm-khoeh tē-3 tōa-āu-chan sī tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ tú-ē-tio̍h ê chêng-hêng, hoat-seng tī 20–23% ê jîn-kháu lāi-té. Soah--lo̍h-lâi siâng-chāi ha̍t-chío ê chhùi-khí sī tē-2 sió-āu-chan kap chhek-mn̂g-khí. Ha̍t-khí siông-chāi kah khoat-khiàm dental lamina ū-tī-tāi. Dental lamina iông-ì siū-tio̍h khôan-kéng le̍k-liōng ê kong-kek, chhan-chhiūⁿ kám-jiám, hòa-ha̍k-tī-liâu (chemotherapy), mā-kah chē-chē chèng-hāu-kûn ū khan-liân, hó-pí Down syndrome kap Crouzon syndrome. 模板:Fact

To-khí-chèng (hyperdontia) sī gia̍h-gōa ê chhùi-khí hoat-io̍k. I hoat-seng tī 1–3% ê pe̍h-sek-lîn-chéng (Caucasian), koh-khah-chē hoat-seng tī A-chiu-jîn-chéng(Asian). [65] Chit-chióng khè-sù tāi-khài 86% sī ke 1-khí chhùi-khí, tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ hoat-seng tī téng-kiuⁿ mn̂g-khí ê só·-chāi. [66] To-khí hō· jīn-ûi sī to-î ê dental lamina só· tì-ìn.

Oan-khiau-khí (dilaceration) sī chhùi-khí bô-chèng-siông ê oan-khiau, chha-put-to lóng-sī gōa-le̍k sóa-tāng chhùi-khí-ìⁿ só· tì-ìn. Tng chhùi-khí ia̍h-leh hoat-io̍k, hut-jiân siū-tio̍h le̍k-liōng thui-sak, lî-khui gôan-lâi ê ūi-tī, tì-sú chhun-ê pō·-hūn í bô-kâng ê kak-tō· kè-sio̍k hoat-io̍k. Chùi-liû (cyst) he̍k chéng-liû (tumor) tī chhùi-khí-íⁿ ê piⁿ-á mā-sī chi̍t-chióng ín-khí oan-khiau-khí ê le̍k-liōng; gín-á-khí hō· gōa-le̍k lòng--tio̍h kiu-ji̍p-khì khí-chô mā-ē sak tio̍h éng-kiú-khí ê khí-íⁿ. [67]

Regional odontodysplasia chiâⁿ hán-kìⁿ, siāng-chia̍p hoat-seng tī téng-kiuⁿ kap thâu-chêng-khí. Goân-in m̄-chai-iáⁿ; ū kúi-ê kóng-hoat, pau-koat neural crest cell ê kòa-gāi, kám-jiám, tiān-kong tī-liâu, kap hoeh-sio̍h chi-goân bô-kàu (siāng sî-kiâⁿ ê ké-soat). [68] Siū regional odontodysplasia éng-hióng ê chhùi-khí tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ bē hoat-khí, khí-koan sī sè-lia̍p-chí, n̂g-n̂g ê ka-pi-sek, seⁿ tio̍h bô-chú-ngó·. Tī tiān-kong-phìⁿ téng-koân chit-chióng chhùi-khí sī thang-kng ê khòaⁿ-thâu, chū-án-ne lâng kiò-i-chò "kúi-á-khí" (ghost teeth). [69]

Tōng-bu̍t ê chhùi-khí hoat-sin[siu-kái]

Pêⁿ-pêⁿ-lâi-kóng, hui-jîn-lūi chhī-ni-tōng-bu̍t chhùi-khí ê tńg-chiâⁿ kah jîn-lūi chhùi-khí ê tńg-chiâⁿ boeh-kâng-boeh-kâng. Cheng-chha thong-siông sī-tī khòaⁿ-thâu, sò·-bo̍k, tńg-chiâⁿ ê sî-kan, kap chhùi-khí ê khoán-iūⁿ, a̍h m̄-sī tī chhù-khí ê hoat-sin kòe-têng.

Hui-jîn-lūi chhī-ni-tōng-bu̍t ê khí-iū-chit hêng-sêng kah jî-lūi--ê kiông-beh saⁿ-kâng. Aminoblast kap khí-iū-chit khì-koan, pau-koat chhùi-khí ni-thâu, in ê kong-lêng sio-chhin-chhiūⁿ. [70] Jîn-lūi kap kî-thaⁿ tāi-to-sò· tōng-bu̍t ê aminoblast tī puh-khí āu lóng-ē sí-bông, tì-kàu bē-ēng--tit chiap-sio̍k sán-seng khí-iū-chit, sui-bóng án-ne, rodent soah ē--tit sio-liân-sòa sán-seng khí-iū-chit, tio̍h chia̍p-chia̍p khì gè-gia̍t chē-chē mi̍h-kiāⁿ lâi bôa-tiāu chhùi-khí, chiah tō·-ē-o̍ah. [71] Khah-sú rodent bô-thang gè-gia̍t mi̍h-kiāⁿ, in-ê chhùi-khí chiong-kî-bóe ē thuh-phòa chhùi-khiuⁿ. Rodent ê mn̂g-khí hun-chò 2 pō·-hūn: tûn-chhek (labial) sī khí-iū-chit ná khí-koan, a̍h sia̍t-chhek (lingual) sī khí-pún-chit ná khí-kha. Che khí-koan kap khí-kha ē 1-sì-lâng tâng-chê sio-liân-sòa sán-seng.

Kah kî-thaⁿ tāi-to-sò· ê tōng-bu̍t bô-kāng, soa-hî lī-iōng bô-kâng ê ki-choán ē kui-sì-lâng sio-liân-sòa hoat sin ê chhùi-khí. [72] In-ūi soa-hî ê chhùi-khí bô khí-kha, chia̍h mn̄g-kiāⁿ gâu lak chhùi-khí (tōng-bu̍t-ka ko·-kè, 1-chiah soa-hî 1-tang siāng-bô lak 2400 khí chhùi-khí), ài it-ti̍t pó·-chhiong sin khí. soa-hî ê chhùi-khí ùi khò-kīn chhùi-chi̍h ê modified scale sán-seng, tng sêng-sek ê-sî chiah 1-pâi 1-pâi ǹg-gōa sóa-chhut lâi gōa-kháu sú-iōng, jiân-āu thǹg-khí. [73]

Chù-kái[siu-kái]

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  7. University of Texas Medical Branch.
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  9. Ross, Michael H., Gordon I. Kaye, and Wojciech Pawlina. "Histology: a text and atlas." 4th ed, p. 453.
  10. Ash & Nelson, Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion, pp. 32, 45, and 53.
  11. University of Southern California School of Dentistry, The Bell Stage: Image 26 found here.
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  16. University of Texas Medical Branch.
  17. University of Southern California School of Dentistry, The Bell Stage: Image 30 found here.
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