Hoat-lu̍t

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Hoat-lu̍tlângsiā-hoē iah kok-ka lāi-té hō͘ lâng siūⁿ-chò tio̍h sūn-thàn ê ū hē-thóng ê kui-chek. Su-hoat kap kéng-chhat chip-hêng chiah-ê kui-chek, mā chhú-hoa̍t ûi-hoán hoat-lu̍t ê lâng, chhú-hoa̍t ê chhiú-lō͘ pí-lūn hoa̍t-kim iah koaiⁿ-kaⁿ téng-téng. Tī kó͘-chá sî-tāi, hoat-lu̍t sù-siông sī thâu-lâng só͘ chè-tēng--ê, lâi chè-hâng lâng tio̍h án-choáⁿ seng-hoa̍t, choh-sit kap chò seng-lí. Hiān-chhú-sî toā-to-sò͘ ê kok-ka--ni̍h, hoat-lu̍t sī li̍p-hoat ki-kò͘ lāi-bīn siū soán-kí--chhut-lâi ê chèng-tī jîn-bu̍t chè-tēng kap tâu-phiò thong-koè--ê khah chē.

Hoat-lu̍t ê kū-thé khoán-sek tō sī hoat-lu̍t tiâu-bûn (hoat-àn), i ê loē-iông pau-koat kéng-chhat, hoat-īⁿ kap chhú-hoa̍t ê hong-sek. Lu̍t-su sī gián-kiù kap ūi pī-kò piān-hō͘ ê choan-gia̍p jîn-oân.

Thàu-koè su-hoat ki-kò͘ kā hoat-lu̍t chip-hêng, thang chè-hān chèng-hú kan-taⁿ ē-tàng tī i kap jîn-bîn só͘ iok-sok ê hoān-ûi lāi sú-iōng koân-le̍k, che tō hō-chò "hoat-tī". Chèng-hú ê koân-le̍k chú-iàu siū hiàn-hoat ê sok-pok. Hoat-tī thang phiah-bián to̍k-chhâi, mā pó-hō͘ jîn-bîn ê koân-lī. Se-goân-chêng 350 nî Hi-lia̍p tiat-ha̍k-ka Aristotle bat siá-kóng: "Hoat-tī khah hó-koè jīn-hô kò-jîn ê thóng-tī."

Bûn-hoà tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ sī chē-chē hoat-lu̍t goân-chek ê chú-iàu lâi-goân, chhin-chhiūⁿ ka-têng koan-liām, kap siā-hoē koàn-sì, lóng ē éng-hióng hoat-lu̍t ê kui-tēng. Lēng-goā tī chin chē kok-ka, chong-kàu kap chong-kàu chheh pí-lūn Vedas, Sèng-keng iah Koran mā bat sī hoat-lu̍t loē-iông iàu-kín ê lâi-goân.

Hoat-lu̍t ê lūi-hêng[siu-kái]

Sêng-bûn-hoat kap bô-sêng-bûn-hoat[siu-kái]

Sêng-bûn-hoat sī tī taⁿ toā-to-sò͘ kok-ka só͘ sú-iōng ê su-hoat hē-thóng, i sī ēng kin-kì hiàn-hoat só͘ chè-tēng ê hoat-lu̍t tiâu-bûn, iah-sī chèng-hú kong-pó͘ ê kui-tēng, lâi chò ki-chhó͘. Sêng-bûn-hoat koh ū 1 ê pō͘-hūn, sī kin-kì koàn-sì ê hoat-lu̍t thêng-sū. Tī chhái-chhú sêng-bûn-hoat ê kok-ka lāi-té, hoat-koaⁿ it-poaⁿ-tek bô hiah toā ê koân, toā-pō͘-hūn ê hoat-lu̍t kap phoàⁿ-lē lóng sī kok-hoē gī-oân só͘ chò--ê.

Bô-sêng-bûn-hoat sī ēng éng-koè hoat-koaⁿ só͘ phoàⁿ-koat ê kiat-kó chò ki-chhó͘ ê hēng-thóng. I ê goân-thâu tī England, koh taⁿ tī chē-chē Tāi-eng Tè-kok í-chá ê léng-thó͘ kap si̍t-bîn-tē mā ū chhái-iōng. (M̄-koh Scotland kap Quebec tō bô.) I kāng-sī mā sī Bí-kok siōng chú-iàu ê hoat-lu̍t hêng-sek, sui-bóng Bí-kok kok-hoē ū thong-koè chē-chē hoat-àn, m̄-koh ū koh khah chē ê hoat-lu̍t kui-tēng sī in-ūi í-chá hoat-têng ê phoàⁿ-koat.

Bô-sêng-bûn-hoat tī Tiong-sè-kí tō ū--a, goân-khí-thâu sī John Kok-ông hō͘ kùi-cho̍k kiông-pek chhiam-sú ê Tāi-hiàn-chiuⁿ.

Chong-kàu hoat-lu̍t[siu-kái]

Chong-kàu hoat-lu̍t sī kin-kì chong-kàu sìn-gióng iah chong-kàu chheh ê hoat-lu̍t. Pí-lūn Iû-thài-kàu ê Halakha, Islam ê Sharia, kap Ki-tok-kàu ê Kàu-hoē-hoat. It-ti̍t kah 18 sè-kí, Sharia lóng iáu sī Islam sè-kài ê chú-iàu hoat-lu̍t hē-thóng. Tī chhin-chhiūⁿ Saud ê A-la-pek kap Iran, in kok kui-ê hoat-lu̍t hē-thóng ki-pún-tek tō sī chhú Sharia chò kin-té--ê.

Chong-kàu hoat-lu̍t tùi chi̍t-koá hui-chong-kàu hoat--ni̍h ê khin-choē tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ ū chin khò͘-hêng ê chhú-hoa̍t, tùi hū-lú kap chió-sò͘ cho̍k-kûn ū khah put-lī.

Hoat-lu̍t ê le̍k-sú[siu-kái]

Su-hoat[siu-kái]

Li̍p-hoat[siu-kái]

Hêng-chèng kap Kok-ka ê thâu-lâng[siu-kái]

Su-hoat hē-thóng ê ki-tha cho͘-sêng[siu-kái]