Kok-chè Im-phiau

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IPA hû-hō pió (Eng-bûn-pán)

Kok-chè Im-phiau (Eng-gí: International Phonetic Alphabet, kán-chheng IPA), sī chi̍t-thò "gú-im hû-hō hē-thóng", sī gí-giân ha̍k-chiá iōng-lâi chù-bêng (kì-lio̍k) jîn-lūi siā-hōe kok-chióng chū-jiân gí-giân ê siaⁿ-im (im-sò·, gí-im) ê phiau-chún hû-hō. Kok-chè Im-phiau sī chi̍t-thò thóng-it ê phiau-chún, i sú-iōng ê hû-hō tōa-to-sò· lâi-chū Lô-má jī-bú, chi̍t-pō·-hūn lâi-chū Hi-lia̍p jī-bú, lēng-gōa koh ū chi̍t-sió-pō·-hūn sī sio̍k-î sin hoat-bêng.

Le̍k-sú pōe-kéng[siu-kái]

Kok-ché Im-phiau siōng chá sī chhut-hiān tī 1886 nî, nn̄g-nî āu, iā-to̍h-sī 1888 nî, thâu-chi̍t-pái chèng-sek hiàng sè-kài kong-pò·. Hit-chūn, ū chi̍t-ê miâ hō·-chòe Pó-ní-pa-se ê gí-giân ha̍k-ka, tòa-niá chi̍t-tīn lâi-chū Eng-kok kah Hoat-kok ê gí-giân kàu-su, tī Kok-chè Gú-im-ha̍k Ha̍k-hōe ê pāng-chān chi-ha, iōng nn̄g-nî ê sî-kan khai-hoat chhut Kok-chè Im-phiau le̍k-sú-siōng ê tē-it ê pán-pún. Kok-chè Im-phiau siōng chá sī kun-kù Su-ui-te̍k ê Lô-má jī-bô lâi pian-chè, put-jî-koh āu--lâi iū-koh siu-chèng kòe kúi-nā-pái. Chit-chūn teh sú-iōng ê Kok-chè Im-phau sī 1993 nî chè-tēng ê pán-pún, chit-ê pán-pún bat tī 1996 nî seng-kip kòe chi̍t-pái.

Im-phiau kán-kài[siu-kái]

Tī IPA hē-thóng lāi-té, ū chōe-chōe kah Latin jī-bú sio-siâng ê chú-im, pí-lūn-kóng [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [m], [n], [f], [v], [s], [h], [z], [l], [w] téng-téng, thàu-té hō· Au-chiu tōa-to-sò· gí-giân khip-siu--khì, chiū iōng-hoat lâi-kóng, chhām Eng-gí bô-siáⁿ cheng-chha. Che í-gōa, IPA lāi-té ū chi̍t-kóa-á kah La-tin Jī-bú sio-siâng ê bú-im hû-hō, chhin-chhiūⁿ "[a], [e], [i], [o], [u]..." to̍h khah chiap-kūn Se-pan-gâ-gí a̍h-sī Gī-tāi-lī-gí.

Mā-ū chi̍t-kóa-á kah La-tin Jī-bú sio-kâng ê IPA hû-hō, hoat-im hām Eng-gí bô-siáⁿ kâng, pí-lūn-kóng [j], [r], [c], [y], chit-pō·-hūn hû-hō ê lâi-gôan khéng-tēng m̄-sī Eng-gí. Kí-lē lâi soeh-bêng:

  1. [j] ê hoat-im kah Tek-gí a̍h-sī Hô-lân-gí ê "j" sio-siâng, tian-tó kah Eng-gí bô-siâng. Hiān-tāi Eng-gí tan-sû yoke tang-tiong ê y to̍h-sī ài tha̍k-chòe "[j]".
  2. [y] ê hoat-im, kah Kó·-Eng-gí sio-siâng, kah hiān-tāi Eng-gí bô-siâng. Siong-tong-î hiān-tāi Hun-lân-gí ê "y", Tek-gí ê "y" kah "ü", Hoat-gí ê "u", he̍k-chiá Hô-lân-gí ê "uu".

IPA chú-iàu ê phiau-im gôan-chek sī "chi̍t-ê hû-hō kan-na (ta) tāi-piáu chi̍t-ê im-sò·", i bô chhan-chhiūⁿ Eng-gí tang-tiong ê "sh" a̍h-sī "th" chit-khóan "su-iàu iû nn̄g-ê chú-im ha̍p-chò-hóe chiah ē-tàng tāi-piáu chi̍t-ê im-sò·" ê chêng-hêng.

Tī IPA lāi-té, lán hoat-hiān kóng, ū-ê hû-hō hām La-tin Jī-bú chiok siâng--ê, chí-put-kò sī kò-pia̍t sò·-chāi sió-kóa-á ū piàn-hòa niâ. Kî-si̍t, chit-khóan ê hû-hō to̍h-sī ùi La-tin Jī-bú piàn--lâi-ê, in ê hoat-im mā hām gôan-té ê La-tin Jīn-bú chha-bô-chōe. Pí-lūn-kóng kńg-chi̍h-im [ɳ] kah chhí-gîn-im (齒齦音) [n], in ê siá-hoat kah hoat-im lóng chin chiap-kīn.

Tī IPA lāi-té, chhiâng-chāi khòaⁿ-tio̍h tī chi̍t-kóa-á jī-bú ê thâu-khak-téng, a̍h-sī ē-té, a̍h-sī piⁿ--thâu chù-bêng hun-im-hû. Pí-lūn-kóng [n̥], che sī leh piáu-sī chi̍t-ê "bô-siaⁿ" ê chú-im. Lēng-gōa, koh ū chi̍t-kóa te̍k-pia̍t ê hû-hō, sī leh hū-chek soeh-bêng chhiau-im-tōaⁿ ê gí-im te̍k-cheng (khó-pí-kóng "tāng-im" kah "gí-tiāu"). Chit-khóan--ê, chhin-chhiūⁿ [aː], piáu-sī bú-im [a] sī chi̍t-ê tn̂g bú-im.

Kok-chè Gú-im Ha̍k-hōe kiàn-gī lán teh sú-iōng IPA ê sî-chūn, siōng-hó ài iōng tiōng-koat-hō ("[ ]") pau--khí-lâi. In-ūi che sī khan-sia̍p tio̍h gí-im phiau-sī ê thêng-tō·, iā-to̍h-sī chhiâng-chāi leh kóng--ê kóng-gī chóan-siá (broad transcription) kah hui-kóng-gī chóan-siá (narrow transcription) in nn̄g-hāng chi-kan ê chha-pia̍t. It-pōaⁿ lâi-kóng, "kóng-gī chóan-siá" ê kui-chek sī iōng siâ-sòaⁿ ("/") lâi piáu-sī; "hui-kóng-gī chóan-siá" iōng tiong-koat-hō ("[ ]") piáu-sī.

Hû-hō-pió[siu-kái]

Chú-im[siu-kái]

 
p b
   
t d
ʈ ɖ
c ɟ
k ɡ
q ɢ
 
ʔ
m
ɱ
n
ɳ
ɲ
ŋ
ɴ
Chhoah-im (顫音)
ʙ
   
r
   
   
ʀ
 
 
   
   
ɾ
ɽ
   
   
 
 
ɸ β
f v
θ ð
s z
ʃ ʒ
ʂ ʐ
ç ʝ
x ɣ
χ ʁ
ħ
ʕ
h
ɦ
ɬ ɮ
   
   
   
   
   
ʋ
ɹ
ɻ
j
ɰ
   
 
 
l
ɭ
ʎ
ʟ
   
  • Pâi-tī siâng chi̍t-ê keh-á lāi-té ê im-phiau, pí-lūn " ɸ β", chiàⁿ-pêng sī ū-siaⁿ ê chú-im, tò-pêng sī bô-siaⁿ ê chú-im
  • keh-á ê pōe-kéng sī hóe-hu-á-sek--ê, tāi-piáu "bô-hoat-tō· chó·-ha̍p" .

Bó-im[siu-kái]

Pian-chi̍p tiong Chit pha iáu-bōe ū lâng siá. Chhiáⁿ tàu pó͘-chhiong lōe-iông.

Gōa-pō· liân-kiat[siu-kái]

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