Lo̍k-ui-gí

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(Tùi Norge-gí choán--lâi)
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Lo̍k-ui-gí (諾威語, Lo̍k-ui-gí: norsk) sī thong-hêng tī Norge ê chi̍t-chióng Pak Germanic gí-giân. Norge-gí hām Sverige-gí kap Tan-gí ū chin-chhim ê koan-hē, chia-ê gí-giân ki-pún-siōng ē-sài siō-thong.

Norge-gí ū 2-chióng koaⁿ-hong ê chiàⁿ-jī-hoat : Bokmål (Bûn-giân Norge-bûn) kap Nynorsk (Sin Norge-bûn). Lēng-goā koh ū Riksmål kap Høgnorsk chit 2-chióng chiàⁿ-jī-hoat. Riksmål kap Bokmål ê cheng-chha bô goā-toā. Høgnorsk sī khah chió-sò· ê siá-hoat. Norge lāi chha-put-to 85-90% ê lâng iōng Bokmål, 10-15% ê lâng iōng Nynorsk siá Norge-gí. Nynorsk chú-iàu thong-hêng tī Norge ê se-pō· tē-khu. Si̍t-chè-siōng, 70-75 % ê lâng kóng ê Norge-gí hong-giân/khiuⁿ-kháu khah oá Nynorsk. Ū-ê só·-chāi kóng ê Norge-gí hong-giân kap thong-hêng ê Norge-gí cheng-chha chin-toā, goā-tē ê Norge-lâng khó-lêng ê thiaⁿ-bô.

Gí-giân thâu[siu-kái]

Hiān-chú-sî thong-hêng tī Scandinavia tē-khu ê gí-giân sī àn kó·-chá ê Norse gí-giân ián-piàn lâi-ê. Kin-kù thôan-thóng, Harald Fairhair Ông tī 872 nî thóng-it Norge. Hit tong-sî ū iōng chi̍t-chióng kán-tan ê runic jī-bó lâi siá-jī. Iōng chio̍h-pi téng siá ê bûn-jī lâi khoàⁿ, bô-kâng só·-chāi kóng ê kó·-chá Norse gí cheng-chha bô-tōa. 1030 nî chó-iū, ki-tok-kàu thoân-ji̍p Norge, kah Latin jī-bó ín-chìn Norge. 1 ê sè-kí liáu-aū, iōng Latin jī siá ê Norge gí-bûn khai-sí chhut-hiān. Chha-put-to mā sī tī chit-ê sî-kan, Norge-gí kap Norge chhù-piⁿ thong-hêng ê gí-giân cheng-chha ná lâi ná toā.

Norge-gí bûn-jī ê jī-bó[siu-kái]

Norge-gí ū 29 ê jī-bó, thâu-chêng 26 ê kap Eng-gí iōng ê Latin jī-bó sio-siāng. Chòe-āu ke 3-ê jī-bó Æ, Ø kap Å. Tî-liáu che 29-ê jī-bó, ū iōng chi̍t-koá-á phiat-im hû-hō tī kui-ê bó-im téng-kôang: à, é, è, ê, ó, ò, ô. Chia-ê phiat-im hû-hō ê sú-iōng bô kiông-chè-sèng. M̄-koh, ū chió-sò· ê lē, ū phiat-im hû-hō ê gí-sū kap bô phiat-im hû-hō ê gí-sū ê ì-sù chha chin-chē. Pí-lūn-kóng: for (for), fór (went), fòr (meadow) and fôr (fodder).

Bokmål, Riksmål, Nynorsk and Høgnorsk[siu-kái]

  • Piau-chún Norge-gí/Norge-bûn : Riksmål, 1840s-1899.
  • Norge kok-gí/kok-bûn, hiong-thó·-gí/hiong-thó·-bûn : Landsmål, 1848-1873.
  • Bûn-giân Norge-gí/Norge-bûn : Bokmål
  • Sin Norge-gí/Norge-bûn : "Nynorsk"
  • Thong-iōng Norge-gí/Norge-bûn : "Samnorsk"

Hiān-tāi ê Norge-gí[siu-kái]

Bokmål kap Nynorsk[siu-kái]

Kap chin-chē Europa ê kok-ka sio-siâng, Norge ū chi̍t-ê koaⁿ-hong ê úi-gôan-hōe kiò Norsk språkråd. Chit-ê úi-gôan-hōe koat-tēng sia-mi̍h sńg chèng-sek, piau-chún ê Norge-gí jī-sû, bûn-hoat, kap jī-sû ê siá-hoat. Têng-kú í-lâi, úi-gôan-hōe chò chhut-lâi ê piau-chún tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ ín-khí cheng-gī. Mā ē-sái kóng iá ū chin-chē sū-kan su-iàu ún-gôan-hōe khì án-nāi.

Norge kàu taⁿ iû-gôan ū 2-thò koaⁿ-hong, chèng-sek ê bûn-jī siá-hoat/chiàⁿ-jī-hoat: Bokmål kap Nynorsk. Bokmål chit-chióng kap m̄-sī koaⁿ-hong chèng-sek ê Riksmål chit 2-chióng ka khì-lâi chiàm (86-90 %). Nynorsk chiàm (10-12 %). Nynorsk has its strongholds in Western Norway and the inland valleys.

In national broadcasting all scripted material is spoken in either Bokmål or Nynorsk, while interviews, talks etc. may be spoken in the dialect of the person speaking.

Kháu-gí hong-giân[siu-kái]

Tōa-pō·-hūn ê lâng lóng tông-ì, in-ùi hong-giân kap hong-giân chi-kan ê cheng-chha án chin-sè kàu chin-tōa lóng ū, chin pháiⁿ kho·-kè ū kui-chióng hong-giân.

Hiān-chhú-sî sú-iōng ê thóng-kè[siu-kái]

Chha-put-to· 85.3 % ê kok-tiong-seng kap sió-ha̍k-seng ê kàu-iok iōng Bokmål, 14.5% iōng Nynorsk. 18 kip í-siōng ê ha̍k-seng pit-su-iàu 2-chióng lóng ē-hiáu.

Norge ū 434 ê hêng-chèng-khu, kî-tiong 162 ê hêng-chèng-khu koat-tēng iōng Bokmål ka tiong-iong chèng-hú kau-thong, 116 ê hêng-chèng-khu (chiàm 12 % jîn-kháu) koat-tēng iōng Nynorsk, 156 ê koat-tēng 2-chióng lóng ē-sái.

Norge tī 2000 nî chhut-pán ê 4,549 hūn chut-pán-phín tiong-ng, 8% iōng Nynorsk, 92% iōng Bokmål/Riksmål. Chôan-kok-séng ê tōa pò-chóa (Aftenposten, Dagbladet kap VG) iōng Bokmål/Riksmål. Chit-kōa tiòng-iàu ê khu-iok-sèng pò·-chóa (pau-koa Bergens Tidende kap Stavanger Aftenblad), chin-chē chèng-tī-sèng ê chap-chì, kap chin-chē tē-hng ê pò·-chóa iōng Bokmål mā iōng Nynorsk.

[siu-kái]

Ē-kha kú chi̍t-koa lē lâi soat-bêng Bokmål kap Nynorsk ê bô-kâng, mā sòa-chhiú kap pó-siú-hêng ê Riksmål (Chin-o̍ah ) kap Danish chò pí-kàu.

B/R/D: Jeg kommer fra Norge
N/H: Eg kjem frå Noreg.
E: I come from Norway.

B/R: Hva heter han?
D: Hvad hedder han?
N/H: Kva heiter han?
E: What is his name?

B/R/D: Dette er en hest.
N/H: Dette er ein hest.
E: This is a horse.

B: Regnbuen har mange farger.
R/D: Regnbuen har mange farver.
N: Regnbogen har mange fargar.
H: Regnbogen hev mange fargar. (Or better: Regnbogen er manglìta).
E: The rainbow has many colours.

Goā-pō· liân-kiat[siu-kái]

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