Téng-ham éng-kiú chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
Thiàu khì: Se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē

Téng-ham éng-kiú chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí, chiàⁿ-pêng 1 khí tò-pêng mā 1 khí, tī téng-ham éng-kiú chhek-mn̂g-khí ê kīn-sim-chhek (khah chiap-kīn bīn ê tiong-soàⁿ), khia tī chhùi-khiuⁿ koân-téng thâu-chêng chiàⁿ-tiong-hng, sī siāng bêng-hián ê chhùi-khí. Kah kî-thaⁿ ê mn̂g-khí kāng-koán, i ê kong-lêng sī chhiat-tn̄g he̍k ka-tn̄g chia̍h-mi̍h. I bô kā-lûn, i leh kā chia̍h-mi̍h ê pō·-ūi kiò-chò chhiat-toan. Sui-bóng ni-khí kap éng-kiú-khí sio-siâng ia̍h-ū mn̂g-khí, téng-ham ni chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí kap i ū chi̍t-koá koh-iūⁿ ê só·-chāi.

Hû-hō piáu-sī[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí ê hû-hō piáu-sī chhiáⁿ chham-khó chhùi-khí hit-phiⁿ, kah siông-sè.

Zsigmondy-Palmer, Chevron, or Set Square system Chiàⁿ-pêng sī 1┘, tò-pêng sī └1 FDI hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat Chiàⁿ-pêng sī 11, tò-pêng sī 21 Bí-kok hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat Chiàⁿ-pêng sī 8, tò-pêng sī 9 Au-chiu hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat Chiàⁿ-pêng sī 1+, tò-pêng sī +1

Hoat-io̍k[siu-kái]

Ū 1 phiⁿ Chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k kóng khah chē..

Hêng-sêng chhùi-khí ê hit-tīn sè-pau sī ùi first branchial arch ê ectoderm kap neural crest ê ectomesenchyme hun-hoà--lâi-ê. [1] Chhùi-khí ngē cho·-chit hoat-io̍k ê sî-chūn, khí-pún-chit tāi-seng seⁿ, ah khí-iū-chit sûi thòe leh seⁿ.

Tng iù-eⁿ chhut-sì 3-4 kó·-goe̍h ê sî, téng-ham éng-kiú chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí khai-sí chìn-hêng kài-hoà. [2] Chit-ki chhùi-khí ê khí-koan tī 4-5 hoè ê sî hoat-io̍k oân-sêng, tī 7-8 hoè ê sî hoat-gê chin-ji̍p chhùi-khiuⁿ. I ê khí-kha tī 10 hoè hoat-io̍k oân-choân


Hêng-thài[siu-kái]

Thâu-chêng-khí hit kúi khí lāi-té, téng-ham éng-kiú chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí tī kīn-oán-sim sī siāng khoah--ê. I pí kè-piah ê chhek-mn̂g-khí khah toā-ki, ah tī tûn-chhek-bīn mā-bô chhiūⁿ chhek-mn̂g-khí hiah phòng. In-chhú, chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí ê hêng-chōng khah kui-kí sì-chiàⁿ. Kīn-sim ê chhiat-toan-kak pí oán-sim chhiat-toan-kak khah lāi khah chiam. Chit-ki chhùi-khí tú hoat ê sî, tī chhiat-toan ū 3 ê îⁿ-îⁿ-chiam-chiam ê te̍k-cheng kiò-chò mammelon [3] In-ūi khí-iū-chit ē boâ-sún, mammelon āu--lâi ta̍uh-ta̍uh-á siau-sit.

It-poaⁿ lâi-kóng, chit-ki chhùi-khí ê goā-koan cha-po· cha-bó· ū koh-iūⁿ. Cha-po· ê thong-siông pí cha-pó· ê khah toā-ki. Khí-iū-chit kap khí-pún-chit ê kau-tō· ê sèng-pia̍t chheng-chha tio̍h khah kē. In-ūi boâ-sún (attrition), nî-hoè tùi kái-phoah khí-koan (anatomy crown) ê tn̂g-tō· ū éng-hióng. Khah siàu-liân ê kái-phoah khí-koan pí khah chē-hoè--ê khah tn̂g. M̄-koh in-ūi khí-hoāⁿ ē sûi nî-hoè cheng-ka jî úi-sok, lîm-chhn̂g khí-koan (clinical crown) tian-tó jú-lâi jú-tn̂g.

Labial view.

Tûn-chhek koan-khoàⁿ[siu-kái]

Tûn-chhek koan-khoàⁿ sī ùi chhùi-tûn hit-pêng ǹg chhùi lāi khoàⁿ chhùi-khí. Chit-ki chhùi-khí ê kīn-sim kheng-khak sī ti̍t ê he̍k chi̍t-su̍h-á phok-phok, ah oán-sim kheng-khak tio̍h ke phok chiâⁿ-chē. [4] Chū-án-ne, kīn-sim ê height of curvature (the point furthest away from the central axis of the tooth) khah chiap-kīn kīn-sim-chhiat-toan kak, ah oán-sim--ê khah phian-hiòng khí-kha-chiam (apical).

Tī mammelon boâ bô--khì liáu-āu, téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí ê chhiat-toan pìⁿ-chiâⁿ ti̍t-ti̍t pêⁿ-pêⁿ. Chhiat-toan tiong-toāⁿ lio̍h-lio̍h-á ǹg chhùi-khí tiong-sim naih--lo̍h-khì. I ê ām-kún-á soàⁿ (cervical line, khí-koan kap khí-kha ê kài-soàⁿ) tiong-toaⁿ ǹg khí-kha-chiam naih--lo̍h, chiū-án-ne, ām-kún-á soàⁿ na̍h-chhiūⁿ poàⁿ-îⁿ-hêng.

Ùi chit-bīn kā khoàⁿ, khí-kha ê goā-koan sī tūn ê îⁿ-chhui-thé. Khí-koan pí khí-kha tn̂g beh 2-3 mm, m̄-koh chē m̄-sī chiâⁿ it-tēng. [5] Chit-khí chhùi-khí ê khí-kha khah bô toā ê oan-khiau chêng-hêng.

Lingual view.

Sia̍t-chhek koan-khoàⁿ[siu-kái]

Sia̍t-chhek koan-khoàⁿ sī ùi chhùi-chi̍h hit-pêng ǹg goā-kháu khoàⁿ chhùi-khí. Téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí ê sia̍t-chhek bīn ū toā lap-o, kiò-chò sia̍t-chhek lap-o, oá ām-kún-á soàⁿ hia ū thok-khí, kiò-chò cingulum, kīn-sim kap oán-sim chit 2 piⁿ ū koân--khí-lâi, kiò-chò marginal ridges. Chhiat-toan ê sia̍t-chhek mā-ū tām-po̍h-á koân--khí-lâi, kah marginal ridge sio-liân. Chit- ê sia̍t-chhek lap-o sì-piⁿ sì ê koân-khí hun-pia̍t sī: chhiat-toan ê sia̍t-chhek pian-iân, kīn-sim ê marginal ridge, oán-sim ê marginal ridge, kap ām-kún-á ê cingulum.[6] Cingulum koân-téng ū hoat-io̍k-kau, lâu tùi sia̍t-chhek lap-o khì.

Chit-khí chhùi-khí ê chit-ê bī pí tûn-chhek bī khah e̍h. In-chhú, tûn-chhek bīn ê kīn-sim pian kap oán-sim pian ê kū-lî pí sia̍t-chhek bīn--ê khah-toā. Jī-chhiáⁿ, chit-khí chhùi-khí tī ām-kún-á hia ê hûiⁿ-chhiat-bīn ē hián-hiān tāi-khài ê saⁿ-kak-hêng goā-hêng. Chit-ê saⁿ-kak-hêng 3 piⁿ hun-pia̍t sī iông-gân bīn (facial surface), kīn-sim bīn, kap oán-sim bīn, oân-sim bīn chit-ê piⁿ ū khah-té tām--po̍h.

Mesial view.

Kīn-sim koan-khoàⁿ[siu-kái]

Chit-khí chhùi-kh ê kīn-sim koan-khoàⁿ sī ùi bīn-pō· ê tiong-soàⁿ hia khoàⁿ chit-khí chhùi-khí. Kīn-sim koan-khoàⁿ chit-khí chhùi-khí hián-sī khí-koan sī saⁿ-kak-hêng, téng-tiám sī chhiat-toan, té-pō· sī ām-kún-á hia.[3] Khí-kha hián-sī î-chui-hêng, chiam-toan tūn-tūn. Kah kî-thaⁿ chhùi-khí bô-kâng, chit-khí ê tiong-sim soàⁿ tâng-chê thong-koè chhiat-toan tiong-sim kap khí-kha-chiam. [7] Che mā hoat-seng tī téng-ham chhek mn̂g-khí.

Sia̍t-chhek oan-khek kap tûn-chhek oan-khek ê siāng-koân-tiám lóng ūi-tī ām-kún-á soàⁿ ê chhiat-toan-chhek. Chit-ê khí-koan ê tûn-chhek piáu-bīn ùi koan-khek siāng-koân-tiám (crest of curvature) kàu chhiat-toan sī phok ê. Ah, i ê sia̍t-chhek piáu-bīn ùi koan-khek siāng-koân-tiám kàu chhiat-toan tāi-hūn sī lap ê, kan-taⁿ oá cingulum kap chhiat-toan hit-tah sī phok ê.

Ùi chit-ê hong-hiòng khoàⁿ, ām-kú-soàⁿ ǹg chhiat-toan oan-khek ê têng-tō·, chit-khí chhùi-khí siāng-toā, pí kî-thaⁿ chhùi-khí kēng-ka bêng-hián. Í téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí pêng-kin khí-koan tn̂g-tō· 10.5 kàu 11 mm lâi-kóng, i-ê ām-kún-soàⁿ oan-khek ū 3 kàu 4 mm. [7]

Distal view.

Oán-sim koan-khoàⁿ[siu-kái]

Oán-sim koan-khoàⁿ sī ùi oán-lî bīn ê tiong-soàⁿ ê hit-pêng ǹg tiong-soàⁿ hong-hiòng khoàⁿ chhùi-khí. Chit-ê chhùi-khí ê chit-pêng kah kīn-sim hui-siông sio-siâng. Chit-khí chhùi-khí ê tûn-chhek piáu-bīn tī oán-sim koan-khoàⁿ pí kīn-sim koan-khoàⁿ hián-hiàn, in-ūi i-ê tûn-chhek piáu-bīn ǹg oán-sim kap sia̍t-chhek kheng-chhiâ (傾斜). Ām-kún-soàⁿ hiòng chhiat-toan oan-khek ê têng-tō· mā pí kīn-sim khah-chió. [4]

Chhit-toan koan-khoàⁿ[siu-kái]

Chhiat-toan koan-khoàⁿ sī kóng ùi chhiat-toan khoàⁿ chhùi-khí. Ùi chit-ê kak-tō· khoàⁿ, kant-taⁿ khoàⁿ ē tio̍h khí-koan, tāi-khài hun-chò siang-pêng. Tûn-chhek bīn kám-kak khoah-khoah pêⁿ-pêⁿ. Sia̍t-chhek bīn hiòng cingulum piàn e̍h-sè--khì. Kīn-sim kak kàu cingulum ê kū-lî sió-khoá pí oán-sim kak kàu cingulum ê kū-lî tn̂g. [8]

Khí-chhoé kái-phoà[siu-kái]

Khí-chhoé sī chhùi-khí ê sîn-keng kap hoeh-kńg kong-èng. Chit-khí chhùi-khí ê kin-kńg tī-liâu hāu-kó chiâⁿ-hó. Chit-khí chhùi-khí tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ ū 3 ê khí-choé kak (pulp horn). [4] Kiông-beh choân-pō· ê téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí ū chi̍t-ê kin-kńg kap chi̍t-ê khí-kha-chiam. [9] Tī-leh chò kin-kńg tī-liâu, só· khui ê chin-ji̍p khí-chhoé-khiuⁿ ê ji̍p-kháu siâng-chāi sī tī sia̍t-chhek piáu-bīn ê tiong-hng, chhiat-toan kap cingulum chi-kan. Tī ám-kún-soàⁿ ê hū-kīn, kin-kńg hoâiⁿ-chhiat ê hêng-chiōng sī saⁿ-kak-hêng, kàu-kah khí-kha tiong-toaⁿ hū-kīn chiah pìⁿ-chò î-hêng. [9] Sui-bóng khí-kha chha-put-tō sī ti̍t--ê, oan-khek tiám siāng-chia̍p chhut-hiān tī oá khí-kha-chiam ê só·-chāi, ah oan-khek ê hong-hiòng sī oan khì oán-sim kap sia̍t-chhek.

Kah hū-kīn chhùi-khí ê chiap-chhiok[siu-kái]

Lîn-chiap chiap-chhiok[siu-kái]

Kah kāng khí-kiong sio-keh-piah chhùi-khí ê chiap-chhiok kiò-chò lîn-chiap chiap-chhiok. Ē kah ka-tī ū lîn-chiap chiap-chhiok ê chhùi-khí kan-taⁿ 2 chióng, téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí sī kî-tiong 1 ê. Lēng 1 ê sī ē-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí. Tī kiān-khong chōng-thài, chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí hō·-siong chiap-chhiok ê tiám sī tī khí-koan ê chhiat-toan saⁿ-hun-chi-it. [10] Lēng-chi̍t-pêng, chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí kap chhek-mn̂g-khí ê chiap-chhiok tiám, khah oá khí-hoāⁿ, sī tī khí-koan ê chhiat-toan saⁿ-hun-chi-it kap tiong-kan saⁿ-hun-chi-it chi-kan.

Kā-ha̍p[siu-kái]

Tng chhùi ha̍p--khí-lâi, kah choân-pō· ê téng-ham thâu-chêng-khí sio-siâng, téng-ham chiàⁿ mn̂g-khí thong-siông sī tī ē-ham chhùi-khí ê tûn-chhek. [11] Nā-sī-kóng téng-ham thâu-chêng-khí khiā chāi ē-ham chhùi-khí ê sia̍t-chhek, án-ne kiò-chò thâu-chêng-khí chhò-ka (crossbite). Ū-sî-chūn, chit-chióng chhùi-khí ê pâi-lia̍t hián-sī ē-ham siong-tùi téng-ham ê ūi-tì ū phian-î, ah kiò-chò Class III he̍k Pseudo-Class III malocclusion. Chèng-siông ê kā-ha̍p sī Class I kā-ha̍p.

Tng chhùi-khí kā--khí-lâi, téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí ē kah ē-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí í-ki̍p chhek-mn̂g-khí chiap-chhiok. Ē-ham chhùi-khí ê chiap-chhiok tiám sī tī téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí ê sia̍t-chhek lap-o ùi chhiat-toan hiòng khí-hoāⁿ tāi-iok 4 mm ê só·-chāi. [11] Tī chit-ê ūi-tì, téng-ham mn̂g-khí kā ē-ham mn̂g-khí ê khí-koan cha-tiāu kiông-beh chi̍t-poàⁿ. Tng chhùi oân-choân kā-ha̍p--khí-lâi, téng-ham mn̂g-khí kah ē-ham mn̂g-khí iáu-sī bô-hoat-tō· kā chò-hoé, án-ne kiò-chò thâu-chêng-khí khui-kā (anterior open bite). Chit-chióng chhùi-khí o·-pe̍h-pâi hoān-sè sī in-ūi bó·-chi̍t-chióng koàn-sì, hó-pí suh-chéng-thâu-á. Lēng chi̍t-hong-bīn, nā-si ē-ham mn̂g-khí kā tī téng-ham mn̂g-khí ê ūi-tì sī oá he̍k oân-choân tī khí-hoāⁿ, án-na kiò-chò chhim-kā (deep bite).

Chhùi-khí ê koh-iūⁿ[siu-kái]

Téng-ham chiàⁿ-mn̂g-khí chia̍p khoàiⁿ ê piàn-ī sī shovel-shaped incisor.

References[siu-kái]

  1. Cate, A. R. Ten, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), p. 102. ISBN 0-8151-2952-1.
  2. Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion. 8th edition. 2003. p. 45. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2.
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Permanent Incisor Teeth, hosted by the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), accessed on June 8, 1006.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Maxillary Incisors, hosted by the University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry, accessed on June 8, 1006.
  5. Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion. 8th edition. 2003. p. 156. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2.
  6. Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion. 8th edition. 2003. p. 158. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion. 8th edition. 2003. p. 159. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2.
  8. Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion. 8th edition. 2003. p. 161. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Walton, Richard E. and Mahmoud Torabinejad. Principles and Practice of Endodontics. 3rd edition. 2002. p. 562. ISBN 0-7216-9160-9.
  10. Summit, James B., J. William Robbins, and Richard S. Schwartz. "Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry: A Contemporary Approach." 2nd edition. Carol Stream, Illinois, Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc, 2001. P. 62. ISBN 0-86715-382-2.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Okeson, Jeffrey P. Management of Temporomandibular Disorders and Occlusion. 5th edition. 2003. p. 83. ISBN 0-323-01477-1.