X' lí-lūn

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X' lí-lūn tha̍k-chò X-bar lí-lūn, sī gí-giân-ha̍k--ni̍h ê Seng-sêng bûn-hoat lí-lūn ê chi̍t-pō͘-hūn.

Tong-goân-chhoe thê-chhut chit-ê lí-lūn--ê, sī gí-giân-ha̍k-ka Noam Chomsky, X' lí-lūn sī 1 ê hun-sek kù-hoat ê lí-lūn kè-sè, tùi-siōng sī só͘-ū ê sû-cho͘ kap gí-kù (pau-koat chú-kù), kin-kì Seng-sêng gí-hoat ki-pún-tek ê thong-iōng bûn-hoat ê koan-liām, X' lí-lūn thê-kiong 1 ê hun-sek hong-sek, beh hun-thiah kap kái-soeh só͘-ū ê gí-giân lāi-té ê sû-cho͘ kap gí-kù kiat-kò͘ hām goân-lí.

He̍k-sim koan-liām[siu-kái]

Chit-ê lí-lūn hun-chò 3 ê kí-pún "kù-hoat cho͘-sêng" kui-chek, it-poaⁿ khah chia̍p ēng kù-hoat chhiū lâi piáu-sī.

1. Ēng 1 ê thang ū thang bô ê chí-tēng-hû (specifier) kap X' (X-bar) cho͘--khí-lâi ê 1 ê X sû-cho͘, bô hun chêng-āu chhù-sū.

XP → (specifier), X
     XP                 XP
    /  \      iah      /  \
spec    X'           X'  spec

2. X-bar kap siu-sik sêng-hun (adjunct) cho͘-sêng ê X-bar, kāng-khoán chêng-āu bô it-tēng.

(X → X, adjunct)


   X'                               X'
  / \              iah           /  \ 
X'   adjunct            adjunct   X'

3. X ( thâu-sêng-hun ; Head, sû-cho͘ ê thâu-sêng-hun ) kap bô kò͘-tēng sò͘-liōng ê pó͘-gí sêng-hun (complement) só͘ cho͘-sêng--ê. Mā bô hun toh-chi̍t-ê chêng toh-chi̍t-ê āu.

X → X, (complement...)
  X'                                                X'
 / \                      iah                    / \  
X   complement              complement   X  

(Téng-koân kí--ê sī kan-taⁿ 1 ê pó͘-gí sêng-hun ê lē.)