Arkansas

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Thiàu khì: Se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Arkansas Chiu
State of Arkansas
Flag of Arkansas State seal of Arkansas
Chiu-kî Hui-kì
Chhiok-hō: The Natural State ("Chu-jiân ê Chiu"; hiān-sî)
The Land of Opportunity ("Ki-hōe ê Thó͘-tē"; chá-chên)
Thê-jī: Regnat populus (Latin: Jîn-bîn Tī-lí)
Chiu-koa: "Arkansas", "Arkansas (You Run Deep in Me)", "Oh, Arkansas" kap "The Arkansas Traveler"
Map of the United States with Arkansas highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân Eng-gí
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Arkansan
Arkansawyer
[1]
Siú-hú
(kiam siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī)
Little Rock
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Little Rock To͘-hōe-khu
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ 29-miâ
 • Ha̍p-kè 53,179 sq mi
(137,733 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 239 lí (385 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 261 lí (420 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 2.09
 • Hūi-tō͘ 33° 00′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 89° 39′ W to 94° 37′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ 33rd
 • Ha̍p-kè 2,978,204 (2015 ko)[2]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 56.4/sq mi  (21.8/km2)
Pâi-miâ 34-miâ
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $40,531 (48-miâ)
Koân-tō͘
 • Chòe-ko tiám Magazine Soaⁿ[3]
2,753 ft (839 m)
 • Pêng-kin 650 ft  (200 m)
 • Chòe-kē tiám Ouachita Hô[3]
55 ft (17 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Arkansas Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p June 15, 1836 (25-miâ)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Asa Hutchinson (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Tim Griffin (R)
Li̍p-hoat General Assembly
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân John Boozman (R)
Tom Cotton (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 4 Republicans (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Central: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166 US-AR
Kán-siá AR, Ark.
Bāng-chām www.arkansas.gov

ArkansasBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. I ê siú-hú kap siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Little Rock.

Arkansas tī 1832 nî ka-ji̍p Bí-kok Liân-pang, chiân-chó Bí-kok tē 25-ê chiu.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Arkansas ê miâ gí-goân siōng kap lēng-gōa chi̍t chiu Kansas ū kâng-khoán ê sêng-hun, lóng sī tùi Kansa pō͘-cho̍k só͘ lâi. Arkansas pún-sin sī Hoat-gí tùi Quapaw-ōe ê akakaze chio̍h--lâi, goân-té ì-sù sī "khe-bóe ê lâng", nā Sioux-ōe mā ū kóng akakaze, ì-sù sī "lâm hong ê lâng".

Bí-kok kok-hōe pat gī-lūn Arkansas ê jī bóe s sī-m̄-sī bô hoat-im, 1881 nî, in koat-tēng koan-hong sú-iōng mài hoat ê ho͘-im /ˈɑrkənsɔː/.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Arkansas ê lâm-pêng sī Louisiana, sai-lâm sī Texas, sai-pêng sī Oklahoma, pak-pêng sī Missouri, nā tang-pêng ū Tennessee kap Mississippi.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chêng 11700 chó͘-iū, Arkansas chit ūi chio̍h ū lâng teh seng-oa̍h, in khó-lêng sī ē-hiáu liah kó͘-chhiūⁿ Mammoth ê bîn-cho̍k. Lông-gia̍p tī tāi-khài chêng 650 nî khai-sí, kun-kù khó-kó͘ gián-kiù, chhú-sî chū-só͘ kēng-ka hó-sè, kang-gē mā khah ho̍k-cha̍p. Tī kî-tha Bí-chiu goān-chū bîn-cho̍k tōa-kûn tùi sai-pêng sóa--lài chìn-chêng, Arkansas chit ūi chú-iàu ū Quapaw, Caddo kap Osage téng cho̍k khiā-khí.

Só͘ chai siāng chá lâi kàu Arkansas ê Au-chiu-lâng sī 1541 nî Se-pan-gâ thàm-hiám-ka Hernando de Soto, i ùi chia siu-chi̍p chu-goân kap kim-á, tī tang-pak-pō͘ tú chia̍p-chhio̍k Casqui lâng, Soto hong chhōa khì pak-pêng ê Pacaha pō͘-lo̍k, koh chham-ú an-pâi nn̄g cho̍k lâng ê hô-pêng tiâu-iok.

1673 nî, Hoat-kok ê Jacques Marquette kap Louis Jolliet tī chè-chō Mississippi Hô tē-tô͘ lō͘ tiong lâi kàu Arkansas Hô. Au-lâi in tó-tńg pak-pêng. Robert La Salle tī 1681 nî chìn-ji̍p Arkansas, āu-bóe in chú-tiuⁿ kûi tiâu Mississippi Hô sio̍k Sin Hoat-lân-se. Au-chiu lâng tī chiu lāi siāng chá ê chng-thâu sī Arkansas Post, sī 1686 nî Henri De Tonto kiàn-li̍p, tong-sî ēng chò kau-e̍k mô͘-phôe téng mi̍h-kiāⁿ ê tē-tiám. Āu-lâi Hoat-kok the̍h hâm Arkansas chāi lāi ê Louisiana Léng-thó͘ kap Se-pan-gâ sio-ōaⁿ Florida. 1783 nî 4 goe̍h Arkansans hoat-seng î-it sio̍k Bí-kok Kek-bēng Chiàn-cheng ê chiàn-sū. Hit tong-sî Eng-kok James Colbert chhōa kūn tī Choctaw kap Chickasaw goân-chū-bîn ê hia̍p-chō͘ hā kong-lio̍k Arkansas Post.

Bí-kok sêng-li̍p liáu-āu, Arkansas óa-ná koh tī Se-pan-gâ koán lāi. Āu-bóe Hoat-kok Napoleon Bonaparte cheng-ho̍k Se-pang-gâ, hâm Arkansas chāi-lāi ê Louisiana soah tī 1800 nî Tē-saⁿ-chhù San Ildefonso Tiâu-iok koh chài hō͘ Hoat-kok chiàm--khì. 1803 nî sî, Hoat-kok kā Louisiana bē hō͘ Bí-kok. Tit tio̍h sin thó͘-tē liáu-āu, chóng-thóng Thomas Jefferson phài lâng thàm-châ léng-thó͘. Kî-tiong William Dunbar chhōa tūi hiòng lâm-pêng thàm-lō͘, pat lâi kàu Arkansas tiong-pō͘ tiāu-cha, in tī 1805 nî pò-kó liáu tong-tē goân-chū-bîn oa̍h-tāng, chháu-bo̍k tōng-bu̍t, mā hun-sek un-chôaⁿ sêng-hun.

1812 nî, sin bé ê Louisiana Léng-thó͘ kái miâ Missouri Léng-thó͘; 1819 nî, Arkansas Léng-thó͘ koh tùi lāi-té hun--chhut-lâi. Sin siat ê Arkansas Léng-thó͘ siú-hú tī Arkansas Post, hoān-ûi hâm tōa-hūn ê āu-lâi Oklahoma chāi-lāi; hia ke--chhut ê tē-hng tī 1828 lēng-gōa nî khui-siat Indian Léng-thó͘.

1836 nî, chóng-thóng Andrew Jackson chhiam-sú Arkansas chiu sêng-li̍p ê sin-chhéng. In ka-ji̍p Bí-kok ê tāi-chì tī hit-chūn kok-hōe mā ín-khí tùi pún-té chio̍h chin siū gī-lūn ê lô͘-lē-chè būn-tê ê thó-lūn. 1837 nî ê sî, chiu lāi hoat-seng kim-hiông chai-hāi, chō-sêng pún-lâi chio̍h khùn-lân ê keng-chè keng-ka put sūn.

1861 nî, tī Abraham Lincoln chóng-thóng iau-kiû Arkansas tùi-hù Fort Sumter ê honá-khòng liáu-āu. Arkansas chiu-hōe koat-tēng thoat-lî liân-pang, ka-ji̍p America Liân-bêng-kok. Hit-chūn Arkansas oa̍h pak ê lâng khah phian Liân-pan (pak-kun), lâm-pêng ê lâng khah phian Liân-bêng (lâm-kun). Lōe-chiàn liáu-āu tī 1868 nî, kun-kù kok-hōe ê Kun-sū tiông-kiàn Hoat-àn (Military Reconstruction Act), Arkansas têng-sin ka-ji̍p liân-pan. Kiōng-hô-tóng khòng-chè ê gī-hōe koh thong-kòe ta-po͘ ê soán-kí khoân-lī. Chit-sî, ūi-tio̍h tùi-hù Kiōng-hô-tóng ki-chìn-phài tùi chiu-lāi sū-bū ê chi-phòe, KKK hoat-khí oa̍h-tāng, ín-khí liáu hō-chò Brooks-Baxter Chiàn-cheng (Brooks-Baxter War) ê chhiong-tu̍t.

Siū pak-pō͘ kap tiong-se-pō͘ kang-gia̍p hoat-tián ê éng-hióng, chin chē lâm-pō͘ ê o͘-lâng tī 20 sè-kí chho͘-kî hiòng gōa liû-tōng. Kàu 1930 nî-tāi, mî-hoe sán-gia̍p ûi chú ê Arkansas, tī keng-chè siau-tiâu tiong mā chin siū éng-hióng, kàu Jī-chhù Tāi-chià sî-kî chia̍h koh khoe-ho̍k.

1950 nî-tāi, Bí-kok ê chòe-ko hoat-īⁿ soan-pò͘ chéng-cho̍k hun-lî chèng-chhek ê ûi-hiàn. Ín-khí Arkansas chāi-lāi chi̍t kóa chiu-hūn kok-hōe gī-goân hoat-khí Lâm-hong Soan-giân (Southern Manifesto), hoán-tùi hoat-īⁿ ê koat-gī.

1993 nî, Arkansas chhut-sin ê Bill Clinton tóng-sóng chóng-thóng, i tī chìn-chêng mā sī pún chiu chiu-tiúⁿ.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Arkansas tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 121,395 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[4] Arkansas tī kin-á-ji̍t lông-gia̍p jîn-kháu taⁿ chiàm 3% chó͘-iū, chóng-sī lông-sán óa-ná sī pún chiu chú-iàu ê sán-gia̍p chi it. In sī Bí-kok chhōa-thâu ê tiū-bí, ba̍h-ke (broilers) kap hóe-ke ê chhut-sán-chiá, mā sī pâi thâu saⁿ miâ ê mî-hoe sán-tē.

Chè-chō-gia̍p hong-bīn, Arkansas chú-iáu bu̍t-sán ū si̍t-phín ka-kang, tiān-chú lêng-kiāⁿ, ki-hâi, chè-chóa téng-téng. In mā seng-sán ga-suh, chio̍h-iû téng khòng-sán. Arkansas chiu lāi ū 52 chō kok-ka kong-hn̂g, koan-kong mā sī pún chiu ê tiōng-iàu keng-chè sêng-hun.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]