Bí-kok kok chiu ê chhiok-hō lia̍t-toaⁿ

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Pún bûn-chiong sī Bí-kok koh chiu kiam Washington, D.C. ê koan-hong chhái-ēng he̍k-chiá thoân-thóng siōng liû-hêng ê "chhiok-hō" lia̍t-toaⁿ.

Lia̍t-toaⁿ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chho͘-jī sī hiān-sî chhái-ēng ê koan-hong chhiok-hō.

Chiu Chhiok-hō kap ké-soeh
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama
(Bô koan-hong chhiok-hō)[1]
  • Cotton Plantation State[2] – "Mî-hoe Chhân-hn̂g Chiu"
  • Cotton State[3] – "Mî-hoe Chiu"
  • Heart of Dixie[3][4][5] – "Dixie chi Sim", ēng ùi chhia-pâi téng, "Dixie" sī tùi Bí-kok lâm-hng koh chiu ê 1-khoán kiò-hoat
  • Lizard State[2] – "Sì-kha-chôa Chiu"
  • Yellowhammer State[3] – "Yellowhammer" sī chi̍t khoán tok-chhiū-chiáu, ha̍k-miâ Colaptes auratus
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska
  • Land of the Midnight Sun[6] – "Pòaⁿ-mî Ji̍t ê Thó͘-tē"
  • Land of the Noonday Moon[6] – "Tiong-tàu Goe̍h ê Thó͘-tē"
  • The Last Frontier[6][7] – "Chòe-āu Chiân-hong", ēng ùi chhia-pâi téng
  • Seward's Folly[6] – "Seward ê Têng-á", William H. Seward sī í-chá Kok-bū Pō͘-tiúⁿ; "Folly" sī se-iûⁿ hoe-hn̂g chong-sek kiàn-bu̍t
  • Seward's Ice Box, Icebergia, Polaria, Walrussia, kap Johnson's Polar Bear Garden – chia kúi-ê miâ sī khah-chá Bí-kok kok-hōe teh thé-lūn Alaska Siu-bé ê sî-chūn kóng lâi làu-kéng--ê[6]
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona
  • Apache State[8] – "Apache Chiu"
  • Aztec State[8] – "Aztec Chiu"
  • Baby State – "Ang-eⁿ-á Chiu", in-ūi Arizona sī Bí-kok sio-liân pō͘-hūn lāi siang bóe siat--ê[8]
  • Copper State[8] – "Tâng-á Chiu"
  • Grand Canyon State[8] – "Grand Canyon]] Chiu", 2011 nî khai-sí ēng tī chhia-pâi téng.[9]
  • Italy of America[8] – "Bí-kok ê Italia"
  • Sand Hill State – "Soa-lūn Chiu"[8]
  • Sunset State – "Ji̍t-lo̍h Chiu"[8]
  • Sweetheart State – chiàu ē-chi̍t hāng ké-soeh[8]
  • Valentine State – "Chêng-jîn-chiat Chiu", Arizona tī 1912 nî 2 goe̍h 14 siat chiu[8]
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas
  • Bear State[10] – "Hîm Chiu"
  • Bowie State[10] – "Bowie" sī chi̍t khoán to-á
  • Hot Springs State[10] – "Un-chôaⁿ Chiu"
  • Land of Opportunity[10], chìn-chêng sī koan-hong chhiok-hō, pat ēng tī chhia-pâi téng
  • The Natural State[10] – "Chū-jiân chi Chiu", ēng ùi chhia-pâi téng[11]
  • Razorback State[10] – "Soaⁿ-ti Chiu"
  • Toothpick State[10] – "Té-to Chiu"
  • Wonder State[10] – "Put-su-gī chi Chiu"
Flag of California.svg California
  • El Dorado State[12] – "El Dorado" sī thoân-soat ê "n̂g-kim-siâⁿ"
  • The Golden State[13][14] – "N̂g-kim chi Chiu", ēng tī chhia-pâi
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado
  • Buffalo Plains State[15] – "Iá-gû Pêⁿ-po͘ Chiu", bô koh leh ēng
  • Centennial State[16] – "Pah-chiu-nî Chiu", Colorado sī Bí-kok chhiam-tēng To̍k-li̍p Soan-giân liáu-āu chi̍t pah tang chiu-nî ê sî sin siat--ê.
  • Colorful Colorado[16] – kha-chá ēng tī chhia-pâi
  • Columbine State[17] – "Columbine" sī chi̍t khoán chāi-tē hoe chéng
  • Highest State[15] – "Chòe-koân-ê Chiu"
  • Lead State[15] – "O͘-iân Chiu", bô koh leh ēng
  • Mother of Rivers[18] – "Hô-chhoan chi Bú"
  • Rocky Mountain Empire[19] – "Rocky Soaⁿ Tè-kok", bô koh leh ēng
  • Rocky Mountain State[20] – "Rocky Soaⁿ Chiu", bô koh leh ēng
  • Silver State[15] – "Gîn-á Chiu", bô koh leh ēng
  • Ski Country USA[21] – "Bí-kok Ku̍t-seh Kūn"
  • Switzerland of America[22] – "Bí-kok ê Sūi-se", bô koh leh ēng
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut
  • Constitution State[23] – "Hiàn-hoat Chiu", ēng tī chhia-pâi téng
  • Nutmeg State[12]
  • Blue Law State[12]
  • Freestone State[12]
  • Land of Steady Habits[12]
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware
  • Chemical Capital of the World[24] – "Sè-kài Hià-ha̍k Siú-to͘", in-ūi chē keng hòa-ha̍k kong-si ê chóng-pō͘ ùi chia
  • Corporate Capital – "Kong-si Siú-to͘", in-ūi chit chiu tùi seng-lí khì-gia̍p ê iu-thāi[24]
  • Diamond State – "Soān-chio̍h Chiu", Thomas Jefferson kóng--ê, ì-sū kong sió-sió m̄-koh chin ū kè-ta̍t[25]
  • Blue Hen State ia̍h Blue Hen Chicken State – "Blue Hen" sī chi̍t khoán ke-á phín-chéng[26]
  • The First State[24][27] – "Thâu-chi̍t Chiu", Delaware sī siāng chá thong-kòe Bí-kok Hiàn-hoat--ê, chit-ê miâ ēng ùi chhia-pâi téng
  • Peach State – "Thô-á Chiu"[24]
  • Small Wonder[24] – "Sió Kî-chek"
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg Washington, D.C.
  • Nation's Capital[28] – "Kok-ka ê Siú-hú"
  • DMV[28] – "District - Maryland - Virginia" ê ì-sù.
Flag of Florida.svg Florida
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia
  • Peach State[30] –  ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Cracker State — khó-lêng lâi-chū kiò chò "crackers" ê î-bîn.[31]
  • Empire State of the South[32]
  • Yankee-land of the South[33]
  • Goober State — "Thô͘-tāu Chiu"[34]
  • State of Adventure – ēng tī kong-lō͘ ê hoan-êng khang-páng
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii
  • Aloha State – koaⁿ-hong tēng ê thong-sio̍k ("popular") hō-miâ[35], ēng tī chhia-pâi.[36]
  • Paradise of the Pacific[36]
  • Pineapple State[36]
  • Rainbow State[37]
  • Youngest State[36]
  • 808 State[38][39]
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois[43]
  • Land of Lincoln[44]–  ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Prairie State[44]
  • Corn State[44]
  • Garden of the West[44]
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas
  • Wheat State – í-chêng ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Home of Beautiful Women[47] – "Súi cha-bó͘ chi hiong"
  • Central State[12]
  • Sunflower State[12]
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana
  • Creole State[12]
  • Pelican State[12]
  • Sportsman's Paradise – "Ūn-tōng-oân ê Lo̍k-hn̂g", ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of Maine.svg Maine
  • Vacationland – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Pine Tree State[49] (Co-official with Vacationland)
  • Lumber State[12]
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts
  • Baked Bean State[54]
  • Codfish State (formerly represented on license plates by a codfish)
  • The Bay State[54]
  • Old Colony State[55]
  • Pilgrim State[54]
  • The Spirit of America – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • The People's Republic of Massachusetts (colloquial)
  • Taxachusetts (colloquial)[56][57][58][59][60]
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan
  • The Great Lakes State – í-chêng ēng tī chhia-pâi
  • Winter Water Wonderland - "Kôaⁿ-thiⁿ ê Chúi Sian-kài", chìn-chêng ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • the Wolverine State[61]
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota
  • Gopher State[12]
  • Land of 10,000 Lakes – chhia-pâi ēng "10,000 Lakes"
  • New England of the West[12]
  • North Star State
  • State of Hockey[62]
  • Bread and Butter State[12]
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi
  • Hospitality State – í-chêng ēng tī chhia-pâi
  • Magnolia State
  • The Birthplace of America's Music – ēng tī chhia-pâi
  • The Bayou State[12]
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri
Flag of Montana.svg Montana
  • Big Sky Country – hiān-sî ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • The Last Best Place[64]
  • Treasure State – chìn-chêng ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska
  • Beef State – chìn-chêng ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Cornhusker State - chìn-chêng ēng ùi chhia-pâi[65]
  • Bugeating State[66]
  • Blackwater State[12]
  • The Good Life – ēng-tī pian-kài khâng-páng
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada
  • Battle Born State – Lōa-chiàn sî-kî ka-ji̍p liân-pang
  • Sagebrush State
  • Silver State – "Gîn-á Chiu", ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey
  • Garden State – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • The Crossroads of the Revolution – pat ēng tī chhia-pâi téng
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico
Flag of New York.svg New York
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota
  • Flickertail State – "Flickertail" sī chi̍t khoán phòng-chhí
  • Peace Garden State –  ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Rough Rider State
  • Sioux State
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio
  • Buckeye State[26]
  • Birthplace of Aviation[73] – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • The Heart Of It All[74] (pat ēng tī chhia-pâi téng)
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma
  • Native America – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
  • Sooner State[75] – "Sooners" sī tùi khá-chá chi̍t tīn khui-khún-chiá ê chheng-ho͘.
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon
  • Beaver State
  • Pacific Wonderland[76] – ē-tàng hông ēng tī chhia-pâi
  • Webfoot State[12]
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania
  • Keystone State[26] – pat ēng tī chhia-pâi téng.
  • Toll Booth State[77]
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island
  • Little Rhody[26]
  • Ocean State – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina
  • Palmetto State[26]
  • Sandlapper State
  • Iodine Products State[78] – bat ēng tī chhia-pâi téng, bô koh leh ēng.
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota
  • Artesian State[79]
  • Blizzard State[79]
  • Coyote State[79]
  • The Mount Rushmore State[80] 1980 nî chhái-ēng.[79]
  • Sunshine State[79]
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee
  • Big Bend State[81] – chí Tennessee Hô
  • Butternut State[81] — chí lōe-chiàn sî-kî pún-chiu peng-á chè-ho̍k ê sek-tī.
  • Hog and Hominy State[81]
  • The Mother of Southwestern Statesmen[81]
  • Volunteer State[81] – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of Texas.svg Texas
  • Friendship State[82]
  • Lone Star State[26][82] – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of Utah.svg Utah
  • Beehive State
  • Mormon State[83]
  • Friendly State[84] – pat ìn tī chhia-pâi téng.
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont
  • Green Mountain State[26] – ēng ùi chhia-pâi
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia
  • Mother of Presidents[12]
  • Mother of States[12]
  • The Old Dominion[26]
  • The Commonwealth
Flag of Washington.svg Washington
  • Evergreen State[85] — "Siông-le̍k Chiu", hiān-sî ēng tī chhia-pâi
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia
  • Mountain State – "Soaⁿ Chiu", pat ēng tī chhia-pâi
  • Panhandle State[12]
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin
(Bô koaⁿ-hong chhiok-hō)[86]
  • Badger State[12] – "Badger" sī chi̍t lūi Tiau-kho tōng-bu̍t
  • America's Dairyland[87][88][86] – "Bí-kok ê Leng-sán chi tē", ēng ùi chhia-pâi téng
  • The Copper State[89][90] – "Tâng Chiu", le̍k-sú sèng--ê.
  • The Forward State – "Chiân-hong Chiu", in-ê phiau-gú (motto) sī "Forward"
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming
  • Cowboy State – "Cowboy" sī Bí-kok chi̍t khoán choan-bûn khiâ-bé kò͘-gû ê lâng
  • Equality State – "Pêng-téng Chiu"
  • Forever West – ēng ùi kong-lō͘ hoan-gêng pâi-á téng

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 Introduction to Alabama, 50 States, retrieved April 24, 2009.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Alabama Emblems, Symbols and Honors". Alabama Department of Archives & History. 2006-04-20. 2007-03-18 khòaⁿ--ê. Alabama does not have an official nickname. 
  4. "Heart of Dixie". Alabama Emblems, Symbols and Honors. Alabama Department of Archives & History. 2004-06-29. 2007-03-18 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. "Nicknames: America's 50 States (First of Four Parts)". Voice of America (VOA Special English program). 2008-01-06. 2009-01-04 khòaⁿ--ê. 
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  7. Alaska Division of Economic Development (2010-12-21). "Alaska Division of Economic Development". Alaska Division of Economic Development. 2011-07-30 khòaⁿ--ê. 
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  9. Ariz. HB 2549
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  11. Arkansas § 1-4-106 - State nickname Retrieved Feb. 28, 2011
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Colby, F. M., pian. (1905). "States, Popular Names of". New International Encyclopedia (1st pán.). New York: Dodd, Mead. 
  13. California Government Code Section 420.75 Retrieved Feb. 28, 2011
  14. "State Symbols". California State Library (State of California). 2008-01-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 "Colorado". NetState.com. NState, LLC. 2007-02-21 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Colorado State Name and Nicknames". Colorado State Symbols & Emblems. State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. 2007-02-21 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  17. "Colorado State Flower". Colorado State Symbols & Emblems. State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. 2007-02-21 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  18. "Colorado Water History" (asp). Colorado Historical Society. 2007-11-29 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  19. Denver, Colorado
  20. "Colorado". USAtourist.com. USATourist. 2007-02-21 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  21. Colorado Ski Country USA history
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  28. 28.0 28.1 Farhi, Paul. (2010, July 30). After initial obscurity, 'The DMV' nickname for Washington area picks up speed. Washington Post. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 Introduction to Florida, 50 States, retrieved April 24, 2009.
  30. "Quick Facts: State Symbols". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. 2008-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  31. "Folklife: Customs and Local Traditions". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. 2008-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  32. "History & Archaeology: Antebellum Industrialization". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. 2008-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  33. "Georgia". State Flags Flowers Birds Symbols and Emblems State Quarters Geography and Maps Newspapers History and Economy for the 50 States. NetState. 2008-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  34. "Land & Resources: Peanuts". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. 2008-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
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  37. "HAWAII: A RAINBOW OF CULTURAL RICHES: A world of traditions blending for centuries offers cultural activities of colorful diversity". Guidebookamerica.com. 2013-05-24 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  38. 808 State Frequently Asked Questions: Where did 808 State get their name from?, 808 State Official Website.
  39. 808 State Update, Talk Radio Hawaii
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  45. The unofficial sobriquet of the State of Indiana has given rise to the humorous constructions Hoosierana (the land of Hoosiers; see uses in Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame and by sports journalist Frank DeFord) and Hoosierstan (the place of Hoosiers).
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  60. Slate's Chatterbox: The Myth of 'Taxachusetts', National Public Radio, October 15, 2004.
  61. Holland, Meegan (15 March 2010). "Death of Michigan's only Wolverine brings up question: Why are we still the Wolverine State?". MLive. 14 September 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  62. Jess Myers, Hockey roots run deep in Minnesota, ESPN.com, February 10, 2004
  63. [1] Riverfront Times, January 10, 2012
  64. In Montana, a Popular Expression Is Taken Off the Endangered List New York Times, August 17, 2008; Retrieved February 28, 2011
  65. [2], Nebraska Rev. Stat. § 90-101, retrieved Nov. 4, 2013
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  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 New Mexico Symbols, State Names, SHG Resources website, accessed July 7, 2008
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  70. 70.0 70.1 Introduction to North Carolina, 50 States, retrieved February 28, 2011.
  71. "Why We are Called Tar Heels". UNC Libraries. 2008-01-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  72. Variety Vacationland Postcard Exhibit Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  73. "It's official: Ohio IS the birthplace of aviation". The Cincinnati Enquirer. 2003-06-14. 2007-04-06 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  74. Elkins, Keith A. (2011). Mr. E. 2003: Manifest Lessons from Ohio's Bicentennial Celebration. iUniverse. p. 293. 
  75. "Nicknames: America's 50 States (Fourth of Four Parts)". Voice of America (VOA Special English program). 2008-01-26. 2009-01-04 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  76. "Oregon's license plate from 1960 to circa 1966". Plate Shack. 2007-07-12 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  77. "Turnpikes and Toll Roads in Nineteenth Century America". 8 November 2012 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  78. "Iodine". South Carolina Encyclopedia. 2007-04-14. goân-loē-iông tī May 19, 2006 hőng khó͘-pih. 2007-04-06 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 79.4 South Dakota Symbols, State Names, SHG Resources website, accessed July 7, 2008
  80. "South Dakota Laws 1-6-16.5". November 4, 2013 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 81.4 Tennessee Symbols and Honors, in Tennessee Blue Book
  82. 82.0 82.1 "Texas:Facts, Map, and State Symbols". EnchantedLearing.com. 2008-03-09 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  83. "NetState: Utah". 2008-03-24 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  84. "State it on a plate — Over the years, slogans, designs have taken some poetic license". Deseret News. 
  85. "Symbols of Washington State". Washington State Legislature. 2012-08-16 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 "Wisconsin State Symbols" in Wisconsin Blue Book 2005-2006, p. 966. Wisconsin has no Official nickname.
  87. Dornfeld, Margaret; Hantula, Richard (2010). Wisconsin: It's my state!. Marshall Cavendish. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-60870-062-2. 
  88. Urdang, Laurence (1988). Names and Nicknames of Places and Things. Penguin Group USA,. p. 8. ISBN 9780452009073. "America's Dairyland" A nickname of Wisconsin 
  89. Kane, Joseph Nathan; Alexander, Gerard L. (1979). Nicknames and sobriquets of U.S. cities, States, and counties. Scarecrow Press. p. 412. ISBN 9780810812550. Wisconsin - America's Dairyland, The Badger State ... The Copper State ... 
  90. Herman, Jennifer L. (2008). Wisconsin Encyclopedia, American Guide. North American Book Dist LLC. p. 10. ISBN 9781878592613. Nicknames Wisconsin is generally known as The Badger State, or America's Dairyland, although in the past it has been nicknamed The Copper State. 

Siong-koan[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]