Chìn-hòa

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
(Tùi Chìn-hoà choán--lâi)
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋
Kin-kì rRNA lâi hun-sek, ē-tàng kā seng-bu̍t ê chìn-hòa oē chò 1 châng hē-thóng-chhiū (phylogenetic tree), lāi-tiong pau-hâm 3 toā-lūi, sè-khún, kó͘-sè-khún, ham chin-he̍k-seng-bu̍t.

seng-bu̍t-ha̍k, chìn-hòa[1] (Eng-gí: evolution) iā sī kóng ián-hòa (演化), sī seng-bu̍t kûn-thé keng-kòe tn̂g sî-kan chiām-chhù piàn-hòa ê kòe-têng. Chit khoán kòe-têng to̍h piáu-hiān tī bu̍t-chéng ê sin sèng-chit kap sin bu̍t-chéng ê sán-seng[2].

Tùi ûi-thoân-ha̍k ê ka-tō͘ lâi kóng, chìn-hòa sī ûi-thoân-chú (gene) ê tùi-li̍p-chú pîn-lu̍t (allele frequency) piàn-tōng, ín khí 1 ê kûn-thé (population) keng-koè kúi-nā tē liáu-aū, in sêng-sio̍k (heritability) lâi ê te̍k-sèng (trait) kap chó͘-sian bô kāng iūⁿ. Sî-kan chi̍t-ē kú, chit ê thêng-sū tō ē chō-chiâⁿ sin ê chéng. Hiān-chú-sî choân-pō͘ ê seng-bu̍t lóng ē-tit kóng sī kāng hiat-thóng (common descent), kúi-nā ek nî ê chìn-hoà chiah chō-chiâⁿ chit-má hō͘-siōng ê cheng-chha. Tē-kiû iáu chûn-chāi--ê ia̍h khu̍t-chéng ê seng-bu̍t chiah-nī chē, chit khoán seng-bu̍t tōⁿ-iūⁿ-sèng (biodiversity) ê in-iû tō sī chìn-hoà.

Gí-goân kap hoan-e̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Eng-gí evolution ê gí-goânLa-teng-gí ê evolutionem, ì-sù sī "tián khui" ná chóa-pún lūi ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ. Chit jī tī 17 sè-kí í-kēng ū ēng ùi i-ha̍k kap sò͘-ha̍k, hit-chūn ì-sù tāi-khài sī kóng "oa̍h-mi̍h ê hoat-io̍k kap tōa-hàn."

Evolution tī hiān-tāi seng-bu̍t-ha̍k ê ì-sù sī 1832 nî Charles Lyell khai-sí chhái-ēng--ê. M̄-koh āu-lâi Charles Darwin tī 1859 nî Chéng ê Khí-goân kài-siàu i chìn-hòa su-sióng ê sî-chūn chi̍t khai-sí sī bô kóng tio̍h evolution chit jī--ê, i ka-ta kàu tē-6 pán ê sî chiah ēng liáu chi̍t kái[3]. Darwin tian-tó khak kah-ì "kòe siu-kái ê sêng-kè" (descent with modification) chit khoán piáu-ta̍t; che chi̍t po͘-hūn sī in-ūi "evolution" tī hit chūn í-kēng ū "chìn-pō͘" ê ì-sù. Jî-chhiá ùi Darwin ê sî-tāi evolution it-poaⁿ sī teh kóng phoe-thai ê hoat-tián kòe-têng.[4] Chóng-sī kî-tha kho-ha̍k-ka pí-lūn Herbert Spencer óa-ná ài ēng "evolution", chit jī tè-bé soah piàn chò thong-ēng ê kóng-hoat[5].

"Chìn-hòa" (進化) sī chá-kî Ji̍t-pún-ōe tùi evolution ê hoan-e̍k, āu-lâi hū-kīn ê Tang-a gí-bûn mā chioh lâi ēng, bo̍k-chêng Ji̍t-gí, Hân-kok-gí kap Oa̍t-lâm-gí (Tiến hóa) lóng ēng chham "chìn-hòa" tùi-èng ê Hàn-jī-sû. Nā Tiong-kok mā chú-iàu sú-ēng chìn-hòa. Lēng-gōa ū Hoâ-gí-kài ê ha̍k-chiá chú-tiuⁿ "chìn-hòa" ê "chìn" (進) hit jī ì-sù bô-hó, ū "chìn-pō͘" ê ngō͘-kái, jîn-ûi ài kái "ián-hòa" (演化) khah hó-sè.

Chìn-hòa ê kòe-têng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ûi-thoân kap piàn-tōng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chìn-hòa ê hoat-seng su-iàu seng-bu̍t-thé ê ûi-thoân sèng-chit hoat-seng piàn-tōng. Chia-ê sèng-chit, kán-tan lâi kóng sī siū oa̍h-mi̍h thé-lāi ê ûi-thoân-chú só͘ khòng-chè. Phì-jû chi̍t-ê lâng ê ba̍k-chiu ê sek-tī sī chi̍t hāng sèng-chit, che sek-tī siū ûi-thoân-chú khòng-chè, chia-ê ûi-thoân-chú sī tùi chit lâng pē-bú ê ûi-thoân-chú ûi-thoân--lâi, pēng-chhiá ûi-thoân ê kòe-têng ē hoat-seng piàn-tōng.

Kho-ha̍k-siōng, ûi-thoân sèng-chit sin-āu ê ûi-thoân-chú kiò ûi-thoân-hêng (genotype), kok hêng tùi-èng ê sèng-chit chiū kiò piáu-hiān-hêng (phenotype). Pián-hiān-hêng tû-liáu siū ûi-thoân-hêng khòng-chè, i mā siū khoân-kéng éng-hióng.

Soán-te̍k goân-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chū-jiân soán-te̍k sī chìn-hòa thang chō chiâⁿ sek-èng kiat-kó ê kòe-têng, sī hoat-seng tī kûn-thé tang-tiong. Tong kî-tha chhiūⁿ ûi-thoân phiau-liû (genetic drift) téng kòe-têng hoat-seng ê sî, ē seng hō͘ chìn-hòa í sûi-ki ê hong-hiòng chìn-hêng. Sòa--lo̍h-lâi chū-jiân soán-te̍k chìn chi̍t-pō͘ ín-chhōa chìn-hòa ê kòe-têng hiòng sek-èng khoân-kéng kap siā-hōe chōng-hóng ê hong-hiòng hoat-tián. Sèng-tek soán-te̍k (sexual selection) sī chi̍t-ê koan-hē chū-jiân soán-te̍k ê khài-liām, chin-chē ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi che ē-tàng sèng chū-jiân soán-te̍k ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn, chóng-sī sèng-tek soán-te̍k ē-tàng sán-seng chhut tùi it-poaⁿ seng-chûn lâi kóng bē chin sek-èng ê te̍k-sû sèng-chit. Tong kûn-thé lāi ê bó͘ chi̍t kóa kò-thé kap kî-tha--ê tī seⁿ-thòaⁿ ê sêng-kong thêng-tō͘ ū it-tēng ê chha-pia̍t, chū-jiân soán-te̍k chiō ē hoat-seng.[6]

Kiat-kó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sī-kak tián-sī kín-sok ê khòng-seng-sò͘ té-khòng-sèng (antibiotic resistance) chìn-hòa, lāi-bīn E. colitrimethoprim lông-tō͘ chin-ka ê tang-tiong koh tī phiat-á sì-kè seⁿ-hoat.[7]

Chìn-hòa éng-hióng tio̍h seng-bu̍t-thé koh hong-bīn ê hêng-thé kap hêng-ûi. Siang bêng-hián--ê sī choan-bûn ê hêng-ûi kap sin-thé sek-èng, in sī chū-jiân soán-tek ê kiat-kó. Chia-ê sek-èng thang keng-kòe pang-chō͘ oa̍h-tāng-sèng, pí-lūn chhōe-chia̍h, cháu-siám pó͘-si̍t-chiá (predator), ia̍h sī khip-ín kau-phòe, lâi chin-ka sek-ha̍p-tō͘ (fitness). Seng-bu̍t-thé chi kan mā hoat-tián ha̍p-chok (cooperating) lâi hoáng-èng chū-jiân soán-tek, hong-sek tiāⁿ sī pang-chō͘ chhin-sio̍k, ia̍h sī tùi siang-pêng ū lī-ek ê kiōng-seⁿ (symbiosis) chok-iōng. Tn̂g-kî lâi khòaⁿ, chìn-hòa keng-kòe kā chó͘-sian kûn-thé thiah hun chò sin--ê, bô-hoat-tō͘ lām-chéng (interbreed) ê gu-lú-puh, sán-seng sin ê bu̍t-chéng,

Chéng-hòa[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chéng-hòa ê sì khoán bô͘-sek.

Chéng-hòa sī chi̍t-ê chéng pun-khui chò nn̄g-ê khah-chē āu-sè chén ê kòe-têng.[8]

Ū chē khoán hong-sek thang tēng-gī "chéng" (species) ê khài-liām. Beh kéng tò khoán tēng-gī, sī chiàu choan-bûn beh khó-lū ê chéng leh koat-tēng--ê.[9] Pí-lūn, ū-ê chèng ê khài-liām tùi iú-sèng seⁿ-thòaⁿ ê oa̍h-mi̍h sī khah ha̍h-ēng, nā ū-ê sī khah ha̍h bû-sèng ê oa̍h-mi̍h. Sui-bóng ū chē khoán chéng ê koan-liām, in lóng ē-tàng pun chò 3 khoán lí-lō͘ ê kî-tiong chi̍t khoán: sio-kau-phòe (interbreeding), seng-thài-sek, kap hoat-seng-ha̍k-sek (phylogenetic).[10] Seng-bu̍t-ha̍k-sek Chéng Khài-liām (Biological Species Concept; BSC) sī sio-kau-phòe-sek ê kó͘-tián àn-lē. Che sī 1942 nî ha̍k-chiá Ernst Mayr tēng-gī--ê, sī kóng "chéng sī chin-chiàⁿ ia̍h ú-thang sio-kau-phòe ê chū-jiân kûn-thé ê gu-lú-puh, hia ê kûn-thé seⁿ-thòaⁿ-siōng kap pa̍t-ê gu-lú-puh chi kan sī ko͘-li̍p--ê.[11] Che BSC sī siū tn̂g-kî khòa-khǹg ê lī-ēng, chóng--sī oa-ná ū thang gī-lūn, pí-lūn chit lūi koan-liām bô-hoat-tō͘ èng-iōng khì goân-hu̍t seng-bu̍t,[12] jî-chhiá che hō͘ chò chèng ê būn-tê (species problem).[9] Ū-ê gián-kiù-chiá ū chhì beh thóng-it chéng ê tēng-gī, ia̍h ū-ê chhái-ēng chē khoán ê lí-lō͘ jî-chhiá chú-tiuⁿ khó-lêng thang ēng bô-kâng hong-sek khì ké-soeh chi̍t-ê chéng ê tēng-gī.[9][10]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Su-chì[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  • Rice, Stanley A. (2006). Encyclopedia of Evolution. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0816055159. 

Chù-kha[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Ogawa Naoyosi, pian. (1931). "chìn-hòa 進化". Tai-Nichi Dai Jiten 臺日大辭典 [Tâi-Ji̍t Tōa Sû-tián] (ēng Ji̍t-pún-gí). 2. p. 228. 
  2. Robert Hine (2005). The Facts On File Dictionary of Biology (4 pán.). Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5647-7. 
  3. Hank Campbell (2009-02-21). "The Evolution Of Evolution". Science 2.0. 2017-06-08 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. Janet Browne (2002). Charles Darwin: The Power of Place. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-79368-3. 
  5. evolution (n.), Online Etymology Dictionary.
  6. Rice 2006, natural selection
  7. Baym, Michael; Lieberman, Tami D.; Kelsic, Eric D.; Chait, Remy; Gross, Rotem; Yelin, Idan; Kishony, Roy (2016-09-09). "Spatiotemporal microbial evolution on antibiotic landscapes". Science (ēng Eng-gí). 353 (6304): 1147–1151. Bibcode:2016Sci...353.1147B. doi:10.1126/science.aag0822. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5534434Freely accessible. PMID 27609891. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2016-09-23. 
  8. Gavrilets, Sergey (October 2003). "Perspective: models of speciation: what have we learned in 40 years?". Evolution. 57 (10): 2197–2215. doi:10.1554/02-727. ISSN 0014-3820. PMID 14628909. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 de Queiroz, Kevin (May 3, 2005). "Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (Suppl. 1): 6600–6607. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.6600D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502030102. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1131873Freely accessible. PMID 15851674. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ereshefsky, Marc (December 1992). "Eliminative pluralism". Philosophy of Science. 59 (4): 671–690. doi:10.1086/289701. ISSN 0031-8248. JSTOR 188136. 
  11. Mayr 1942, p. 120
  12. Fraser, Christophe; Alm, Eric J.; Polz, Martin F.; et al. (February 6, 2009). "The Bacterial Species Challenge: Making Sense of Genetic and Ecological Diversity". Science. 323 (5915): 741–746. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..741F. doi:10.1126/science.1159388. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 19197054.