Copt-gú

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Copt-gú
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Goân-chū kok-ka Aiki̍p
Bîn-cho̍k Copt-jîn [en]
Era
Gí-hē
Chá-kî hêng-sek
Hong-giân
  • Bohairic
  • Sahidic
  • Akhmimic
  • Lycopolitan
  • Fayyumic
  • Oxyrhynchite
Bûn-jī hē-thóng Copt jī-bó
Gí-giân tāi-bé
ISO 639-2 cop
ISO 639-3 cop
Glottolog copt1239
Lang Status 01-EX.svg
Coptic is an extinct language according to the classification system of the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
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Copt-gú (Bohairic Copt-gú: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, timetremənkhēmi; ing-gú: Coptic language) sī bi̍t-tshiat siong-kuan ê tē-hng gú-giân gú-hē,[5] mā tāi-piáu Ai-ki̍p gú-giân ê tsuè-sin huat-tián,[2][6] copt-gú li̍k-sú siōng uì kong-guân tē-3 sè-kí khai-sí teh Roma Ai-ki̍p iû copt-jîng sóo sú-iōng,[7] Teh Muslim tsing-ho̍k Ai-ki̍p liáu-āu, copt-gú tō hōo Alapik-gú tshú-tāi uî Ai-ki̍p tsú-iàu ê kháu-gú, pīng teh kuí-ā-ê sè-kí tsi-lāi copt-gú ta̍uh-ta̍uh-á hōo alapik-gú sóo tshú-tāi. Copt-gú kin-á-ji̍t pìng-bô ū bó-gú jîn-sū tsûn-tsāi,[8] Sui-bóng copt-gú guân-tsāi tsok-uî copt tāng-tsìng-káu kàu-tn̂g kap copt thian-tsú kàu-tn̂g ê jî-siông sing-ua̍h tiong ê lé-pài gî-sik gú-giân.[9] Gú-giân, im-ūn-ha̍k ê tshòng-sin í-kip Ellás guā-lâi-gú ê ióng-ji̍p kā copt-gú kap tsá-kî ê Aiki̍p-gú khu-hun tshut--lâi. Copt-gú sī-iōng copt jī-bó lâi su-siá ê, tse-sī Elláda jī-bú ê tsi̍t-tsióng siu-kái hîng-sik, iah-koh ū kuí-ā-ê uì Ai-ki̍p thong-sio̍k-gú lāi-té tsió-lâi ê gia̍h-guā jī-bú.[10]

Tsú-iàu ê copt gú-giân sī Sahidic-gú, Bohairic-gú, Akhmimic-gú, Fayyumic-gú, Lycopoli-gú kah Oxyrhynchite-gú. Sahidic copt-gú teh Asyut-gú hām Oxyrhynchus-gú[11] siânn-tshī tsi-kan sú-iōng, pīng tehc. 325 – c. 800 AD. sî-kî tsok-uî tsi̍t-tsióng bûn-ha̍k gú-giân teh Ai-ki̍p tuā-huat-tshái.[12] Bohairic-gú sī Nile Delta [en] ê gú-giân, tī 9 sè-kí liû-hîng, sī copt kàu-huē sú-iōng ê hong-giân.[13] Sui-bóng bi̍t-tshiat siong-kuan, copt gú-giân teh im-ūn, gú-giân hîng-thài hām sû-luī hong-bīn hōo-siong bô kâng-khuán.

Bîng-tshing ên-khí[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Copt-gú ê pún-tē bîng-tshing teh Bohairic-gú (Delta) ê tē-hng gú-giân kiò-tsò ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (/təmətɾəmənˈkʰeːmə/); teh sahidic-gú (suann-khàm) tē-hng gú-giân tō kiò-tsò ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ (/təməntəɾəmənˈkeːmə/). Lia̍t-sū tōng-sû "mouti" (ⲙⲟⲩϯ, 'to speak') ê tsōo-sû tsiân-tuat me(n)t- teh copt-gú tang-tiong tsiânn-tsò tsiânn-tsē thiu-siōng-bîng-sû (m̄-nā kán-ná sī hia--ê kah "gú-giân" iú-kuan ê bîng-sû). Su̍t-gú "remənkʰēmi/rəmənkēme" ê ì-sù sī "Aiki̍p-jîn", jī-bīn ê ì-sù sī "Ai-ki̍p ê lâng", sī rem- ê ho̍k-ha̍p-sû, tse tio̍h-sī copt bîng-sû ⲣⲱⲙⲓ/ⲣⲱⲙⲓ/ⲣⲱⲙⲉ, "lâng, jîn-luī" ê kòo-sîng tsōng-thài, + sio̍k-kik kài-sû (ə)n- (ⲛ̀, 'of') + piáu-sī "Ai-ki̍p" ê sû-gú, "kʰēmi/kēme" (ⲭⲏⲙⲓ/ⲕⲏⲙⲉ; tsham-kiàn Kemet). In-tshú, kui-ê piáu-ta̍t ê jîn-bîn ì-sù sī "Ai-ki̍p jîn-bîn ê gú-giân", hi̍k-tsiá kiò-tsò "Ai-ki̍p gú-giân".

Copt-gú ê līng-guā tsi̍t-ê bîng-tshing sī "təməntkuptaion" (ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ), sī lâi-tsū Copto-Elláda gú (Copto-Greek) ê hîng-sik (ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲛ, 'Aiki̍p-gú'). Tsit-ê su̍t-gú "logos ən aiguptios" (ⲗⲟⲅⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲥ, "Aiki̍p-gú") teh Sahidic-gú mā-ū tsìng-bîng tsi̍t-tiám, m̄-ku logos hām aiguptios lóng khí-guân teh Elláda-gú. Teh Copt Tang-tsìng-káu Kàu-tn̂g ê gî-sik lāi-té, koh-khah tsìng-sik ê bîng-tshing sī "tiaspi ənremənkʰēmi" (ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, "Ai-ki̍p ê gú-giân"), "aspi" (ⲁⲥⲡⲓ) sī Aiki̍p ê gú-giân tān-sû.

Tē-lí hun-pòo[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Copt-gú kin-á-ji̍t teh Copt Tang-tsìng-kài hām Copt Thiantshu kàu-tn̂g (í-kip hiān-tāi piau-tsún Alapik-gú) tang-tiong iōng gî-sik hîng-sik lâi sú-iōng. Tsit-ê gú-giân kán-ná teh Ai-ki̍p sú-iōng, li̍k-sú siōng teh líng-thóo í-guā uá-beh bô íng-hióng, tû-liáu khiā-tī Nubia ê siu-tō-īnn. Copt-gú siōng hián-tù ê gú-giân íng-hióng sī tuì Ai-ki̍p alapik-gú ê kok-tsióng tē-hng gú-giân, i-ê ti̍k-tiám sī-teh sû-luī, gú-giân hîng-thài, kù-huat hām gú-im ti̍k-ting hong-bīn kū-iú Copt ê ki-tshóo hām ti̍k-tsit.[14]

Tuì kî-thann gú-giân ê íng-hióng[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Tû-liáu íng-hióng Aiki̍p alapik-gú ê gú-huat, sû-luī kah kù-huat í-guā, Copt-jîn [en] koh hiòng Alapik-gú hām Hiān-tāi ivrít-gú [en] koh tsió-iōng i-hā ê sû-gú:

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Richter, Tonio Sebastian (2009). "Greek, Coptic and the 'language of the Hijra': the rise and decline of the Coptic language in late antique and medieval Egypt" (PDF). Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East. Cambridge University Press. p. 404. The most long-lived genres of Coptic texts, composed until the thirteenth and even fourteenth century in the Upper Egyptian dialect, are scribal colophons, inscriptions and graffiti. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. Coptic is the name of the final stage of the Egyptian language, spoken and written from the third century AD until perhaps sometime in the seventeenth century. 
  3. The language may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century, according to James Edward Quibell, "When did Coptic become extinct?" in Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 39 (1901), p. 87. In the village of Pi-Solsel (Az-Zayniyyah or El Zenya north of Luxor), passive speakers were recorded as late as the 1930s, and traces of traditional vernacular Coptic reported to exist in other places such as Abydos and Dendera, see Werner Vycichl, Pi-Solsel, ein Dorf mit koptischer Überlieferung in: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, (MDAIK) vol. 6, 1936, pp. 169–175 (in German).
  4. P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. It [Coptic] is still used today in the rituals of the Coptic (Egyptian Christian) Church. 
  5. P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781646020843. ...there is no uniform “Coptic” language, but a number of dialects. 
  6. Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. It [Coptic] is the direct descendant of Ancient Egyptian... 
  7. Richter, Tonio Sebastian (2009). "Greek, Coptic and the 'language of the Hijra': the rise and decline of the Coptic language in late antique and medieval Egypt" (PDF). Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East. Cambridge University Press. p. 404. From everything we know it must be assumed that the spoken language behind the written evidence of Coptic was usually acquired as a first language, which means as mother tongue in non-Hellenised, or non-Arabised Egyptian families, but scarcely, if at all, as a second language. 
  8. "Coptic". Ethnologue (ēng Eng-gí). 2022-05-17 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. The liturgy of the present day Coptic Orthodox Church in Egypt is written in a mixture of Arabic, Greek, and Bohairic Coptic, the ancient dialect of the Delta and the great monasteries of the Wadi Natrun. Coptic is no longer a living language. 
  10. Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. The Coptic alphabet is the twenty-four Greek letters written in rounded form (thus ⲉ ⲥ ⲱ), to which are added six additional letters taken from Egyptian (Demotic script): ϣ ϥ ϩ ϫ ϭ ϯ. 
  11. Blasco Torres, Ana Isabel (2017). Representing Foreign Sounds: Greek Transcriptions of Egyptian Anthroponyms from 800 BC to 800 AD. University of Salamanca. p. 613. doi:10.14201/gredos.135722. ...four main dialects were spoken in Graeco-Roman Egypt: Bohairic in the Delta, Fayumic in the Fayum, Sahidic between approximately Oxyrhynchus and Lykopolis and Akhmimic between Panopolis and Elephantine. 
  12. Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. Coptic comprised a number of dialects, of which Sahidic (centered perhaps in Shmoun-Hermopolis-AI Ashmunein) had the greatest literary importance and the widest use in the Nile valley. Almost all native Coptic literature was composed in Sahidic, between AD 325-800. 
  13. P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781646020843. Bohairic, a northern dialect, is first attested in the fourth century AD but is primarily represented by texts from the ninth century and later; it is also the dialect used by the modern Coptic Church. 
  14. "Coptic Language History". www.axistranslations.com. goân-loē-iông tī 2016-03-27 hőng khó͘-pih. 2020-05-24 khòaⁿ--ê. 

Ên-sin sú-iōng[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

It-puann gián-kiú[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Abel, Carl (1855). "On the Coptic Language". Transactions of the Philological Society (5). 
  • Emmel, Stephen. 1992. "Languages (Coptic)". In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman. Vol. 4 of 6 vols. New York: Doubleday. 180–188.
  • Gessman, A. M. (1976). "The Birth of the Coptic Script". University of South Florida Language Quarterly 14. 2–3. 
  • Gignac, Francis Thomas. 1991. "Old Coptic". In The Coptic Encyclopedia, edited by Aziz Suryal Atiya. Vol. 8 of 8 vols. New York and Toronto: Macmillan Publishing Company and Collier Macmillan Canada. 169–188.
  • Kasser, Radolphe. 1991. "Dialects". In The Coptic Encyclopedia, edited by Aziz Suryal Atiya. Vol. 8 of 8 vols. New York and Toronto: Macmillan Publishing Company and Collier Macmillan Canada. 87–96.
  • Wolfgang Kosack. Lehrbuch des Koptischen.Teil I:Koptische Grammatik.Teil II:Koptische Lesestücke, Graz 1974.
  • Loprieno, Antonio. 1995. Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Polotsky, Hans Jakob. 1971. "Coptic". In Afroasiatic: A Survey, edited by Carleton Taylor Hodge. (Jana Linguarum: Series Practica; 163). 's Gravenhage and Paris: Mouton. 67–79.

Gú-huat hām bûn-huat gián-kiú[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Chaîne, Marius. 1933. Éléments de grammaire dialectale copte: bohairique, sahidique, achmimique, fayoumique. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
  • Eberle, Andrea, & Regine Schulz. 2004. Koptisch – Ein Leitfaden durch das Saïdische. LINCOM Languages of the World/Materials 07. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
  • Jernstedt, Peter V. 1927. Das koptische Präsens und die Anknüpfungsarten des näheren Objekts. 'Comptes rendus de l'Academice des Sciences de l'Union République Soviétique Socialistes. 2, 69–74.
  • Lambdin, Thomas Oden (1983). Introduction to Sahidic Coptic. Macon: Mercer University Press. 
  • Layton, Bentley. 2000. A Coptic Grammar (Sahidic Dialect): With a Chrestomathy and Glossary. (Porta linguarum orientalium; N.S., 20). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Layton, Bentley. 2007. Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises and Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1810-1.
  • Mallon, Alexis. 1956. Grammaire copte: bibliographie, chrestomathie et vocabulaire. 4th edition. Beyrouth.
  • Mattar, Nabil. 1990. A Study in Bohairic Coptic. Pasadena: Hope Publishing House.
  • Plumley, John Martin (1948). Introductory Coptic Grammar. London: Home & Van Thal. 
  • Polotsky, Hans Jakob. 1987. Grundlagen des koptischen Satzbaus. American Studies in Papyrology 28. Decatur, Ga.: Scholars Press.
  • Reintges, Chris H. (2004). Coptic Egyptian (Sahidic dialect): a learner's grammar. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89645-570-3. 
  • Reintges, Chris H. (2010). "Coordination, converbs, and clause-chaining in Coptic Egyptian typology". Chū Bril, Isabelle. Clause linking and clause hierarchy. Studies in Language Companion Series. 128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN 978-90-272-0588-9. 
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel. 1988. Coptic Grammatical Chrestomathy: a course for academic and private study. Orientalia lovaniensia analecta 30. Leuven: Peeters.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel. 1986. Coptic Grammatical Categories: Structural Studies in the Syntax of Shenoutean Sahidic. Analecta Orientalia 53. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. ISBN 88-7653-255-2.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel. 2007. Topics in Coptic Syntax: Structural Studies in the Bohairic Dialect. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 160. Leuven – Paris – Dudley, MA: Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1875-7.
  • Tattam, Henry, A compendious grammar of the Egyptian language as contained in the Coptic, Sahidic, and Bashmuric Dialects (London 1863)
  • Till, Walter C. 1994. Koptische Dialektgrammatik. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter.
  • Vergote, Jozef. 1973–1983. Grammaire copte. Leuven: Peeters.
  • Younan, Sameh. 2005. So, you want to learn Coptic? A guide to Bohairic Grammar. Sydney: St.Mary, St.Bakhomious and St.Shenouda Coptic Orthodox Church.

Jī-tián[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Černý, Jaroslav. 1976. Coptic Etymological Dictionary. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crum, Walter Ewing. 1939. A Coptic Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Reprinted by Sandpiper Books Ltd, London & Powells Books, Chicago, 2000.
  • Wolfgang Kosack: Koptisches Handlexikon des Bohairischen. Koptisch – Deutsch – Arabisch. Verlag Christoph Brunner, Basel 2013, ISBN 978-3-9524018-9-7.
  • Vycichl, Werner. 1983. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue copte. Leuven: Éditions Peeters.
  • Westendorf, Wolfhart. 1965/1977. Koptisches Handwörterbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Phonology[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Allen, James P. (2020). "Coptic". Ancient Egyptian Phonology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108485555. 
  • Depuydt, Leo. 1993. "On Coptic Sounds," Orientalia 62 (new series): 338–75.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H (originally published 1962). "The interpretation of the Coptic vowel system," On Language: Selected Writings of Joseph H. Greenberg, eds., K Denning & S Kemmer. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990: 428–38.
  • Grossman, Eitan and Martin Haspelmath. 2015. "The Leipzig-Jerusalem Transliteration of Coptic," Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective, eds., Eitan Grossman, Martin Haspelmath & Tonio Sebastian Richter. Berlin/Munich/Boston: Walter de Gruyter. 145–56.
  • Isḥāḳ, Emile Māher. 1975. "The phonetics and phonology of the Boḥairic dialect of Coptic and the Survival of Coptic Word in the Colloquial and Classical Arabic of Egypt and of Coptic Grammatical Constructions in Colloquial Egyptian Arabic". University of Oxford. 32-671.
  • Loprieno, Antonio. 1997. "Egyptian and Coptic Phonology," Phonologies of Asia and Africa (Including the Caucasus), vol. 1, ed., Alan S. Kaye. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. 431–60.
  • Peust, Carsten (1999). Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language. Peust & Gutschmidt. ISBN 3933043026. 

Tsham-khó su-bo̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Kammerer, Winifred (compiler), A Coptic Bibliography, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1950. (Reprint New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969)
  • Wolfgang Kosack: Der koptische Heiligenkalender. Deutsch – Koptisch – Arabisch nach den besten Quellen neu bearbeitet und vollständig herausgegeben mit Index Sanctorum koptischer Heiliger, Index der Namen auf Koptisch, Koptische Patriarchenliste, Geografische Liste. Christoph Brunner, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-9524018-4-2.
  • Wolfgang Kosack: Schenute von Atripe De judicio finale. Papyruskodex 63000.IV im Museo Egizio di Torino. Einleitung, Textbearbeitung und Übersetzung herausgegeben von Wolfgang Kosack. Christoph Brunner, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-9524018-5-9.
  • Wolfgang Kosack: Basilios "De archangelo Michael": sahidice Pseudo – Euhodios "De resurrectione": sahidice Pseudo – Euhodios "De dormitione Mariae virginis": sahidice & bohairice : < Papyruskodex Turin, Mus. Egizio Cat. 63000 XI. > nebst Varianten und Fragmente. In Parallelzeilen ediert, kommentiert und übersetzt von Wolfgang Kosack. Christoph Brunner, Berlin 2014. ISBN 978-3-906206-02-8.
  • Wolfgang Kosack: Novum Testamentum Coptice. Neues Testament, Bohairisch, ediert von Wolfgang Kosack. Novum Testamentum, Bohairice, curavit Wolfgang Kosack. / Wolfgang Kosack. neue Ausgabe, Christoph Brunner, Basel 2014. ISBN 978-3-906206-04-2.

Tsham-ua̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Guā-pōo liân-kiat[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]