Ûi-thoân-chú

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Ûi-thoân-chú ê chó͘-sêng kap ûi-thoân-chú piáu-ta̍t kòe-têng (chin-hu̍t sè-pau).

Ûi-thoân-chú (Tek-gí: gen; Eng-gí: gene), Hàn-bûn hoan ki-in (基因), sī seng-bu̍t ê ûi-thoân-thé (genome) lāi-bīn ê chi̍t tōaⁿ sū-lia̍t (sequence), sī seng-bu̍t ê ûi-thôan tan-gôan. Seng-bu̍t ê hoat-io̍k kap kok iūⁿ ê piáu-hêng (phenotype) sī ûi-thoân-chú kap khôan-kéng kau-hō͘ chok-iōng ê kiat-kó.

Toā-hūn ê ûi-thoân-chú sī DNA cho-sêng. Kî-tiong ū-ê pō͘-hūn ē-sái choán-lio̍k chò mRNA, mRNA koh-lâi ē-sái hoan-e̍k (translation) chò nn̄g-pe̍h-chit. Chit-ê kòe-têng sī ûi-thoân-chú piáu-ta̍t (gene expression), só͘ chè-chō ê nn̄g-pe̍h-chit kap RNA kiò-chò ûi-thoân-chú sán-bu̍t.

Gián-kiù le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Khah goân-sú ê khài-liām sī Gregor Mendel kun-kù i tī 1860 nî-tāi tùi hôe-liân-tāu (Pisum sativum) ê gián-kiù só͘ thê-chhut. I hoat-kiàn ū-ê ûi-thoân sèng-chit ū hun-soàⁿ chhut-hiān ê te̍k-sek.

1889 nî, Hugo de Vries tī i ê tì-chok Intracellular Pangenesis lāi-bīn sú-iōng "pangen" lāi piáu-sī Mendel ha̍k-soat lāi-té ê ûi-thoân tan-goân khài-liām (hit-tong-sî De Vries khó-lêng iáu m̄-chai Mendel ê gián-kiù). Āu-lâi, Wilhelm Johannsen koh kā "pangen" kán-lio̍k chò "gen", Eng-gí hoan-e̍k chòe "gene".

Teng-gī būn-tê[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thoân-thóng siōng ûi-thoân-chú sī chí chi̍t tōaⁿ DNA sū-lia̍t, pún tōaⁿ DNA ē-sài hong choán-siá chò RNA, jî-chhiá chìn chi̍t pō͘ hoan-e̍k chò ē-tàng áu chò tàn-pe̍h-chit chham-ka sè-pau tāi-siā kap kò͘-chō ê polypeptide. M̄-koh siū tio̍h kho-ha̍k siōng tùi ûi-thoân hiān-siōng ê siông-sè lí-kái ê éng-hióng. Kài-liām siōng hiān-taⁿ "ûi-thoân-chú" í-keng chin pháiⁿ chò chhut thóng-it ê tēng-gī, i kun-kù kò-pia̍t ê si̍t-giām su-kiû, tī kò-pia̍t ê gián-kiù lāi-bīn ū ka-tī ê bô sio-siâng ê hong-sek. Só͘-í ū gián-kiù-chiá jīn-ûi ûi-thoân-chú sī chi̍t khoán kài-lio̍k-sèng ê ēng-gí, pang-chō͘ kho-ha̍k-ka biâu-siá DNA tùi seng-bu̍t kong-lêng ê chok-iōng[1].

Kong-lêng khài-liām kap bu̍t-chit ki-chhó͘[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tī kó͘-tián ûi-thoân-ha̍k lāi-bīn, ûi-thoân-chú sī jiám-sek-thé téng-bīn ê ûi-thoân bu̍t-chit, i pún-sin kap kî-tha ê ûi-thoân-chú, koa-tēng liáu seng-bu̍t kò-thé ê khoán-sit (characteristic). I tùi-èng chi̍t tōaⁿ ûi-thoân bu̍t-chit, it-poaⁿ sī DNA (pō͘-hūn sī RNA). Chi̍t-ê ûi-thoán-chú ê chē khoán hêng-sek, kiò chò i-ê tùi-ngó͘-chú (alleles), keng-kòe tu̍t-piàn (mutation) ē sán-seng sin-ê tùi-ngó͘-chú khoán-iūⁿ. Chiàu kó͘-tián ì-gī, ûi-thoân-chú ē-tàng tēng-gī chò ē-sài siū têng-cho͘ (recombination) an-pâi he̍k-chiá sī tu̍t-piàn ia̍h khòng-chè it-tēng ki-lêng, ê ûi-thoân chòe-sió tan-goân.[2]

Nā tī hun-chú ê koan-tiám lâi kóng ûi-thoân-chú sī sè-pau beh chè-chō RNA he̍k-chiá sī polypeptide sán-bu̍t só͘ su-iàu ê kui lia̍t hu̍t-sng sū-lia̍t, chiàu chit khoán ì-gī, ûi-thoân-chú put-tàn pau-koat tòa bi̍t-bé khu-tōaⁿ ê cistron, mā hâm kî-tha koan-hē khòng-chè choán-siá ê khu-tōaⁿ, chia-ê pō͘ hūn ū khó-lêng kî cistron chin hn̄g. Ûi-thoân-chú ē-tàng hun chò saⁿ khoán: kò͘-chō ûi-thoân-chú (structural genes) sī hâm kàⁿ-sò͘ kap kî-thah tàn-pe̍h-chit ê polypeptide ê bi̍t-bé ê ûi-thoân-chú; koh ū RNA ûi-thoân-chú, sī hâm ribosome RNA kap choán-sàng RNA bi̍t-bé ê ûi-thoân-chú; koh ū tiâu-chiat ûi-thoân-chú (regulator genes), sī tiâu-chéng pa̍t khoán ûi-thoán-chú piáu-ta̍t ê ûi-thoân-chú.[2]

Ûi-thoân-thé chân-bīn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ûi-thoân-chú ê sò͘-liōng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ûi-thoân-thé ê chhùn-chhioh, he̍k-chiá kóng ûi-thoân-chú ê sò͘-liōng, tī bô kâng seng-bu̍t ū chin tōa ê chha-pia̍t. Siāng sió ê ûi-thoân-thé, sī chhut-hiān tī pēⁿ-to̍k, siāng chió taⁿ 2-ê thang seng-sán tān-pe̍h-chit ê ûi-thoân-chú;[3] he̍k-chiá chhiūⁿ lūi-pēⁿ-to̍k (viroid), pún-sin sī chi̍t-ê RNA ûi-thoân-thé.[4] Nā siāng tōa liōng ê ûi-thoân-chú chhut-hiān tī si̍t-bu̍t, phì-jû tiū-á ū chhiau-kòe 46,000 ê tān-pe̍h-chit pian-bé ûi-thoân-chú.[5]

Koan-liân bûn-chiuⁿ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Raphael Falk (2010). "What is a gene?—Revisited". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4). doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2010.10.014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Robert Hine (2005). "gene". The Facts On File Dictionary of Biology (4 pán.). Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5647-7. 
  3. Belyi, V. A.; Levine, A. J.; Skalka, A. M. (22 September 2010). "Sequences from Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Vertebrate Genomes: the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae Are More than 40 to 50 Million Years Old". Journal of Virology 84 (23): 12458–12462. doi:10.1128/JVI.01789-10. PMC 2976387. PMID 20861255. 
  4. Flores, Ricardo; Di Serio, Francesco; Hernández, Carmen (February 1997). "Viroids: The Noncoding Genomes". Seminars in Virology 8 (1): 65–73. doi:10.1006/smvy.1997.0107. 
  5. Yu J, Hu S, Wang J, Wong GK, Li S, Liu B, Deng Y, Dai L, Zhou Y, Zhang X, Cao M, Liu J, Sun J, Tang J, Chen Y, Huang X, Lin W, Ye C, Tong W, Cong L, Geng J, Han Y, Li L, Li W, Hu G, Huang X, Li W, Li J, Liu Z, Li L, Liu J, Qi Q, Liu J, Li L, Li T, Wang X, Lu H, Wu T, Zhu M, Ni P, Han H, Dong W, Ren X, Feng X, Cui P, Li X, Wang H, Xu X, Zhai W, Xu Z, Zhang J, He S, Zhang J, Xu J, Zhang K, Zheng X, Dong J, Zeng W, Tao L, Ye J, Tan J, Ren X, Chen X, He J, Liu D, Tian W, Tian C, Xia H, Bao Q, Li G, Gao H, Cao T, Wang J, Zhao W, Li P, Chen W, Wang X, Zhang Y, Hu J, Wang J, Liu S, Yang J, Zhang G, Xiong Y, Li Z, Mao L, Zhou C, Zhu Z, Chen R, Hao B, Zheng W, Chen S, Guo W, Li G, Liu S, Tao M, Wang J, Zhu L, Yuan L, Yang H (April 2002). "A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)". Science 296 (5565): 79–92. Bibcode:2002Sci...296...79Y. doi:10.1126/science.1068037. PMID 11935017.