Ûi-thoân-chú

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
(Tùi Ki-in choán--lâi)
Thiàu khì: se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Ûi-thoân-chú ê chó͘-sêng kap ûi-thoân-chú piáu-ta̍t kòe-têng (chin-hu̍t sè-pau).

Ûi-thoân-chú (Tek-gí: gen; Eng-gí: gene), Hàn-bûn hoan ki-in (基因), sī seng-bu̍t ê ûi-thoân-thé (genome) lāi-bīn ê chi̍t tōaⁿ sū-lia̍t (sequence), sī seng-bu̍t ê ûi-thôan tan-gôan. Seng-bu̍t ê hoat-io̍k kap kok iūⁿ ê piáu-hêng (phenotype) sī ûi-thoân-chú kap khôan-kéng kau-hō͘ chok-iōng ê kiat-kó.

Toā-hūn ê ûi-thoân-chú sī DNA cho-sêng. Kî-tiong ū-ê pō͘-hūn ē-sái choán-lio̍k chò mRNA, mRNA koh-lâi ē-sái hoan-e̍k (translation) chò nn̄g-pe̍h-chit. Chit-ê kòe-têng sī ûi-thoân-chú piáu-ta̍t (gene expression), só͘ chè-chō ê nn̄g-pe̍h-chit kap RNA kiò-chò ûi-thoân-chú sán-bu̍t.

Khài-liām[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tī kó͘-tián ûi-thoân-ha̍k lāi-bīn, ûi-thoân-chú sī jiám-sek-thé téng-bīn ê ûi-thoân bu̍t-chit, i pún-sin kap kî-tha ê ûi-thoân-chú, koa-tēng liáu seng-bu̍t kò-thé ê khoán-sit (characteristic). I tùi-èng chi̍t tōaⁿ ûi-thoân bu̍t-chit, it-poaⁿ sī DNA (pō͘-hūn sī RNA). Chi̍t-ê ûi-thoán-chú ê chē khoán hêng-sek, kiò chò i-ê tùi-ngó͘-chú (alleles), keng-kòe tu̍t-piàn (mutation) ē sán-seng sin-ê tùi-ngó͘-chú khoán-iūⁿ. Chiàu kó͘-tián ì-gī, ûi-thoân-chú ē-tàng tēng-gī chò ē-sài siū têng-cho͘ (recombination) an-pâi he̍k-chiá sī tu̍t-piàn ia̍h khòng-chè it-tēng ki-lêng, ê ûi-thoân chòe-sió tan-goân.[1]

Nā tī hun-chú ê koan-tiám lâi kóng ûi-thoân-chú sī sè-pau beh chè-chō RNA he̍k-chiá sī polypeptide sán-bu̍t só͘ su-iàu ê kui lia̍t hu̍t-sng sū-lia̍t, chiàu chit khoán ì-gī, ûi-thoân-chú put-tàn pau-koat tòa bi̍t-bé khu-tōaⁿ ê cistron, mā hâm kî-tha koan-hē khòng-chè choán-siá ê khu-tōaⁿ, chia-ê pō͘ hūn ū khó-lêng kî cistron chin hn̄g. Ûi-thoân-chú ē-tàng hun chò saⁿ khoán: kò͘-chō ûi-thoân-chú (structural genes) sī hâm kàⁿ-sò͘ kap kî-thah tàn-pe̍h-chit ê polypeptide ê bi̍t-bé ê ûi-thoân-chú; koh ū RNA ûi-thoân-chú, sī hâm ribosome RNA kap choán-sàng RNA bi̍t-bé ê ûi-thoân-chú; koh ū tiâu-chiat ûi-thoân-chú (regulator genes), sī tiâu-chéng pa̍t khoán ûi-thoán-chú piáu-ta̍t ê ûi-thoân-chú.[1]

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kha goân-sú ê khài-liām sī Gregor Mendel kun-kù i tī 1860 nî-tāi tùi hôe-liân-tāu (Pisum sativum) ê gián-kiù só͘ thê-chhut. I hoat-kiàn ū-ê ûi-thoân sèng-chit ū hun-soàⁿ ê te̍k-sek.

1889 nî, Hugo de Vries tī i ê tì-chok «Intracellular Pangenesis» lāi-bīn sú-iōng "pangen" lāi piáu-sī Mendel ha̍k-soat lāi-té ê ûi-thoân tan-goân kài-liām (hit-tong-sî De Vries khó-lêng iáu m̄-chai Mendel ê gián-kiù). Āu-lâi, Wilhelm Johannsen koh kā "pangen" kán-lio̍k chò "gen", Eng-gí hoan-e̍k chòe "gene".

Teng-gī būn-tê[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thoân-thóng siōng ûi-thoân-chú sī chí chi̍t tōaⁿ DNA sū-lia̍t, pún tōaⁿ DNA ē-sài hong choán-siá chò RNA, jî-chhiá chìn chi̍t pō͘ hoan-e̍k chò ē-tàng áu chò tàn-pe̍h-chit chham-ka sè-pau tāi-siā kap kò͘-chō ê polypeptide. M̄-koh siū tio̍h kho-ha̍k siōng tùi ûi-thoân hiān-siōng ê siông-sè lí-kái ê éng-hióng. Kài-liām siōng hiān-taⁿ "ûi-thoân-chú" í-keng chin pháiⁿ chò chhut thóng-it ê tēng-gī, i kun-kù kò-pia̍t ê si̍t-giām su-kiû, tī kò-pia̍t ê gián-kiù lāi-bīn ū ka-tī ê bô sio-siâng ê hong-sek. Só͘-í ū gián-kiù-chiá jīn-ûi ûi-thoân-chú sī chi̍t khoán kài-lio̍k-sèng ê ēng-gí, pang-chō͘ kho-ha̍k-ka biâu-siá DNA tùi seng-bu̍t kong-lêng ê chok-iōng[2].

Koan-liân bûn-chiuⁿ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Robert Hine (2005). "gene". The Facts On File Dictionary of Biology (4 pán.). Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5647-7. 
  2. Raphael Falk (2010). "What is a gene?—Revisited". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4). doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2010.10.014.