Minnesota

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State of Minnesota
Flag of Minnesota State seal of Minnesota
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: Land of 10,000 Lakes;
North Star State; The Gopher State; Agate State; State of Hockey.
Piau-gí: L'Étoile du Nord (Hoat-gí: Pak-hng chi Chheⁿ)
Map of the United States with Minnesota highlighted
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Minnesotan
Siú-hú Saint Paul
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Minneapolis
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Minneapolis–Saint Paul
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-12
 • Ha̍p-kè 86,936 sq mi
(225,163 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah c. 200–351 lí (c. 320–560 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah c. 400 lí (c. 640 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 8.40
 • Hūi-tō͘ 43° 30′ N to 49° 23′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 89° 29′ W to 97° 14′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-21
 • Ha̍p-kè 5,489,594 (2015 nî ko͘)[1]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 68.9/sq mi  (26.6/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-30 (2015 nî ko͘)
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $68,730[2] (6th)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Eagle Mountain[3][4]
2,301 ft (701 m)
 • Pêng-kin 1,200 ft  (370 m)
 • Kē-tiám Lake Superior[3][4]
602[5] ft (183 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Minnesota Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p May 11, 1858 (32nd)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Mark Dayton (DFL)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Tina Smith (DFL)
Li̍p-hoat Minnesota Li̍p-hóa-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân Amy Klobuchar (DFL)
Al Franken (DFL)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 5-ūi Bîn-chú-tóng, 3-ūi Kiông-hô-tóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Central: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166 US-MN
Kán-siá MN, Minn.
Bāng-chām mn.gov

MinnesotaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húSaint Paul. Siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Minneapolis.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Minnesota iû-lâi sī Dakota-gí tùi Minnesota Hô ê miâ Mnisota. Jī thâu mni- ì-sù sī "chúi", ta () ì-sù nâ-sek. Tī chiu lāi ū bōe chió Minne- chhōa-thâu ê tē-hō-miâ, lóng sī tùi chúi ê hêng-iông. Pú-lūn Minnehaha Falls ("chiò-chhiò ê chúi"), Minneiska ("pe̍h chúi"), Minneota ("chē-chē ê chúi"), Minnetonka ("tōa chúi"), Minnetrista ("oan-oan khek-khek ê chúi").

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiàu Bí-kok ê tē-lí hun-khu, Minnesota sī ūi tī leh Téng Tiong-se-pō͘ (Upper Midwest), mā sǹg sī Tōa-ô͘-khu ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn. Pún chiu kap tang-pêng ê Michigan tiong-ng sī keh liáu chi̍t-ê Superior Ô͘, kâng-khoán tī tang-pêng koh ū pō͘-hūn sio-óa ê Wisconsin chiu hūn. Lēng-gōa, ùi lâm-pêng sī Iowa; sai-pêng ū North Dakota kap South Dakota; tī pak-pêng sī Ka-ná-tah ê Ontario chham Manitoba séng.

Kui chiu ê bīn-chek ū 225,180 pêng-hong kong-lí, chiàm choân-kok ê 2.25 pha-sén, sī pâi tē-12 tōa ê Bí-kok chiu-hūn.

Minnesota sī Bí-kok tû-liáu Alaska í-gōa siāng óa pak ê chiu, I ū chi̍t kak hiòng pak thòng--chhut-khì, khu lāi ū Chhiū-nâ Ô͘ (Lake of the Woods), ô͘ ê pak-pêng ū chi̍t hūn thó͘-tē, sī Bí-kok tāi-lio̍k pō͘-hūn î-it pí pak-hūi 49 tō͘ koh khah óa pak ê só͘-chāi.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Au-chiu-lâng lâi kàu Pak Bí-chiu chìn-chêng, Minnesota chú-iàu ê jîn-kûn sī Dakota-lâng. Hoat-kok ê lâng tī 17 sè-kí lâi kàu Minnesota chò mô͘-phôe bé-bē. Tong Au-chiu î-bîn tī tang-hoaⁿ oa̍h-tāng ê sî, Anishinaabe téng cho̍k mā sóa ji̍p phì-jû Minnesota chit khoán lōe-lio̍k. Sin lâi ê Anishinaabe lâng kap chāi-tē ê Dakota lâng tio̍h sán-sen tùi-li̍p.

1762 nî kàu 1802 nî kî-kan, Minnesota sī Se-pan-gâ Louisiana só͘-sio̍k. Bí-kok kek-bēng bóe-kî, Tē-jī-chhù Pa-lí Tiâu-iok chhiam-sú sî, Minnesota tī Mississippi Hô tang-pêng ê thó͘-tē piàn chò sī Bí-kok ê chi̍t hūn. Liáu-āu, Bí-kok koh keng-kòe Louisiana Siu-bé, tit tio̍h Mississippi sai-pêng ê thó͘-tē.

Minnesota Léng-thó͘.

Minnesota Léng-thó͘1849 nî 3 goe̍h chheh 3 sêng-li̍p, thau kài ê gī-hōe, sī New England î-bîn kap in kiáⁿ-sun só͘ khòng-chè. Hit tong-sî chin chōe lông-ka khai-sí tī Minnesota khai-hoat. Kàu 1858 nî 5 goe̍h 11, Minnesota siat chò Bí-kok ê tē 32 chiu. In-ūi New England hē ê jîn-kháu chiàn tōa-hūn, hong kiò chò sī "Sai-pō͘ ê New England" (The New England of the West).

1861 nî tòa tī Mankato ê Au-chiu-hē jîn-bîn sêng-li̍p hō chò Sim-lîm Bú-sū (Knights of the Forest) ê thoân-thé, beh chiong goân-chū-bîn kóaⁿ cháu. Chit khoán ap-le̍k ín-khí liáu 1862 nî ê Dakota Chiàn-cheng, āu-bóe chia goân-chū-bîn lóng sóa khí Dakota ê Crow Creek Pó-liû-tē (Crow Creek Reservation).

1880 nî-tāi liáu-āu tī Vermilion Soaⁿ-tē kap Mesabi Soaⁿ-tē téng só͘-chāi hoat-kiàn thih-khòng, tong-tē kiàn-li̍p liáu chhái-khòng ê sán-gia̍p, in ê chhut-sán, ē-tàng hiòng tang sàn kàu Tōa-ô͘-khu. 20 sè-kí chá-kî, kang-gia̍p ê hoat-tián chō-sêng jîn-kháu tùi chháu-tē hiòng to͘-chhī î-sóa; chóng-sī Minnesota hit-tong-sî lông-gia̍p oan-ná chin tiōng-iàu.

Tōa Siau-tiâu sî-kî, Minnesota ê keng-chè mā siū sún-hāi, kàu 1931 nî kap 1935 nî kî-kan, sai-pêng kap Dakota koh siū khiàm-chúi ê gûi-hāi. Āu-lâi Sin Chhek (New Deal) ê kè-ōe hō͘ pún-tē keng-chè ū chi̍t kóa kái-siàn. Hit-chūn Kong-bîn Pó-io̍k Tūi (Civilian Conservation Corps) kap kî-tha ê kè-ōe, chiam-tùi goân-chū-bîn thê-kiong khang-khòe. 1934 nî ê hoat-àn koh khak-li̍p in khai-siat chū-chú chèng-hú ê chè-tō͘.

Jī-chhù Tāi-chiàn liáu-āu, sin-ê kang-gia̍p hoat-tián. Chū-tōng-hòa ê phó͘-ki̍p kái-chìn liáu seng-sán-le̍k. Lông-chok-bu̍t tōa-hūn lóng piàn hoan-be̍h kap sió-be̍h. 1946 nî, Kang-têng Gián-kiù Cho͘-ha̍p (Engineering Research Associates) sêng-li̍p, choan-bûn thè hái-kun khai-hoat tiān-náu.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Minnesota ê jîn-kháu bi̍t-tō͘.

Chiàu 2010 nî 4 goe̍h ê phó͘-cha chu-liāu, thong Minnesota ê jîn-kháu ê 5,303,925 lâng; lāi-bīn 83.1% sī hui Latin-hē ê pe̍h-lâng; 5.2% sī o͘-lâng ia̍h Hui-chiū-hē Bí-kok-lâng; Indian kap Alaska goân-chū-bîn chiàm 1.1%; A-chiu-hē chiàm 4.0%.[6]

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Minnesota tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 316,204 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[7] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng chò ê khang-khòe sī kiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ kap siā-hōe hû-chō͘ (health care and social assistance) sán-gia̍p.[8]

Pún chiu sī Bí-kok seng-sán siāng-chē chè-thn̂g-ēng âng-chhài-thâu (sugar beet), tiⁿ hoan-be̍h (sweet corn) kap ka-kang-ēng hôe-liân-tāu, koh ū chhī hóe-ke ê chiu. Lēng-gōa mā sī n̂g-tāu kap hoan-be̍h ê tiōng-iàu seng-sán-chiá.

Kau-thong[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Minnesota ê chèng-hú ū siat Minnesota Kau-thong-pō͘ lâi chú-koán kau-thong gia̍p-bū. Keng-kòe pún chiu ê chú-iàu chiu-chè kong-lō͘ ū I-35, I-90, I-94 téng lō͘-sòaⁿ. Chia lāi-bīn I-35 kap I-94 keng-kòe Minneapolis–St. Paul tō͘-hōe-khu; I-90 ùi chiu ê lâm-pêng piⁿ thong-kòe.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. National, State, and Puerto Rico Commonwealth Totals Datasets: Population, population change, and estimated components of population change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 U.S. Census Bureau (2015)
  2. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 9, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. goân-loē-iông tī October 15, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. October 24, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  5. "Lake Superior Water Levels", Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Updated daily.
  6. "QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  7. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Minnesota, FRED.
  8. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê.