Oa̍t-lâm Chiàn-cheng

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the Indochina Wars and the Cold War ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn
Clockwise from top left:
Sî-kan1 November 1955 – 30 April 1975

North Vietnamese and Viet Cong/PRG victory

Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976
Chí-hui-koaⁿ kap léng-tō-chiá

≈860,000 (1967)

  • North Vietnam:
    690,000 (1966, including PAVN and Viet Cong).[A 5]
  • Viet Cong:
    ~200,000 (estimated, 1968)[7][8]:
  • China:
    170,000 (1968)
    320,000 total[9][10][11]
  • Khmer Rouge:
    70,000 (1972)[12]:376
  • Pathet Lao:
    48,000 (1970)[13]
  • Soviet Union: ~3,000[14]
  • North Korea: 200[15]
  • Albania: 12[16]

≈1,420,000 (1968)

  • South Vietnam:
    850,000 (1968)
    1,500,000 (1974–1975)[17]
  • United States:
    2,709,918 serving in Vietnam total
    Peak: 543,000 (April 1969)[12]:xlv
  • Khmer Republic:
    200,000 (1973)[18]
  • Laos:
    72,000 (Royal Army and Hmong militia)[19][20]
  • South Korea:
    48,000 per year (1965–1973, 320,000 total)
  • Thailand: 32,000 per year (1965–1973)
    (in Vietnam[21] and Laos)[22]
  • Australia: 50,190 total
    (Peak: 8,300 combat troops)[23]
  • New Zealand: 3,500 total
    (Peak: 552 combat troops)[8]:
  • Philippines: 2,061
  • North Vietnam & Viet Cong
    30,000–182,000 civilian dead[12]:176[24][25]:450–3[26]
    849,018 military dead (per Vietnam; 1/3 non-combat deaths)[27][28][29]
    666,000–950,765 dead
    (US estimated 1964–1974)[A 6][24][25]:450–1
    232,000–300,000+ military missing (per Vietnam)[27][30]
    600,000+ military wounded[31]:739
  • Khmer Rouge: Unknown
  • Láu-o Pathet Lao: Unknown
  •  China: ~1,100 dead and 4,200 wounded[11]
  •  Soviet Union: 16 dead[32]
  •  North Korea: 14 dead[33]

Total military dead/missing:

Total military wounded:

(excluding GRUNK/Khmer Rouge and Pathet Lao)

  •  South Vietnam:
    195,000–430,000 civilian dead[24][25]:450–3[34]:
    254,256–313,000 military dead[35]:275[36]
    1,170,000 military wounded[12]:
    ≈ 1,000,000 captured[37]
  •  United States:
    58,281 dead[38] (47,434 from combat)[39][40]
    303,644 wounded (including 150,341 not requiring hospital care)[A 7]
  •  Laos: 15,000 army dead[46]
  • Khmer Republic: Unknown
  • South Korea: 5,099 dead; 10,962 wounded; 4 missing
  •  Australia: 521 dead; 3,129 wounded[47]
  •  Thailand: 351 dead[12]:
  •  New Zealand: 37 dead[48]
  •  Republic of China: 25 dead[49]
    17 captured[50]
  • Philippines: 9 dead;[51] 64 wounded[52]
Total military dead:

Total military wounded:
(excluding FARK and FANK)
Total military captured:
1965 nî tī Oa̍t-lâm Kiōng-hô-kok, Napalm chà-tàn kong-kek.

O̍at-lâm Chiàn-cheng mā hō Tē-jī-chhù Ìn-tō͘-chi-na Chiàn-cheng, sī 1950 nî-tāi bóe-kî kàu 1975 nî, tī O̍at-lâm, Lao, Kán-po͘-chē hoat-seng ê chi̍t-ê chiàn-cheng. Tī chiàn-cheng lāi-bīn, kiōng-sán sè-le̍k chi-ōan Oa̍t-lâm Bîn-chú Kiōng-hô-kok (Pak Oa̍t-lâm); Bí-kok chham chi̍t-kóa kok-ka chi-ōan Oa̍t-lâm Kiōng-hô-kok (Lâm Oa̍t-lâm).

Chham-ka chiàn-cheng ê kok-ka[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Oa̍t-lâm Kiōng-hô-kok hong-bīn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Oa̍t-lâm Bîn-chú Kiōng-hô-kok hong-bīn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Tsù-sik[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Sweden sent humanitarian support to North Vietnam, offered political and diplomatic opposition to the U.S., and harbored American deserters. See:[2]
  2. 1955–1963
  3. 1963–1969
  4. 1964–1968
  5. According to Hanoi's official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the People's Army of Vietnam.[6]
  6. Upper figure initial estimate, later thought to be inflated by at least 30% (lower figure)[24][25]:450–3
  7. The figures of 58,220 and 303,644 for U.S. deaths and wounded come from the Department of Defense Statistical Information Analysis Division (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as from a Department of Veterans fact sheet dated May 2010; the total is 153,303 WIA excluding 150,341 persons not requiring hospital care[41] the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, dated 26 February 2010,[42] and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant.[43]:65,107,154,217 Some other sources give different figures (e.g. the 2005/2006 documentary Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 cited elsewhere in this article gives a figure of 58,159 U.S. deaths,[44] and the 2007 book Vietnam Sons gives a figure of 58,226)[45]

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Hupchick, Dennis P. (2002). The Balkans : from Constantinople to communism. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-312-29913-2. OCLC 54360177. 
  2. Logevall, Fredrik (1993). "The Swedish-American Conflict over Vietnam". Diplomatic History. 17 (3): 421–445. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1993.tb00589.x. JSTOR 24912244. 29 July 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. Moise, Edwin E. (1996). Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (ēng Eng-gí). Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-8078-2300-2. 
  4. "Chapter Three: 1957–1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. p. 72. 17 October 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers) (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-983-2220-26-8. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 16 October 2015 hőng khó͘-pih. 17 October 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint. 
  6. Military History Institute of Vietnam 2002, p. 182. "By the end of 1966 the total strength of our armed forces was 690,000 soldiers."
  7. Doyle, Edward; Lipsman, Samuel; Maitland, Terence (1986). The Vietnam Experience The North. Time Life Education. pp. 45–9. ISBN 978-0-939526-21-5. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Moïse, Edwin (2005). The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-1-4617-1903-8. 
  9. "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. 24 December 2013 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8476-9013-8. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-521-61834-2. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Tucker, Spencer C (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-960-3. 
  13. "Area Handbook Series Laos". 1 November 2019 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. O'Ballance, Edgar (1982). Tracks of the bear: Soviet imprints in the seventies. Presidio. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-89141-133-8. 
  15. Pham Thi Thu Thuy (1 August 2013). "The colorful history of North Korea-Vietnam relations". NK News. 3 October 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  16. "Vietnam/Historia e 12 zbuluesve shqiptarë në luftën kundër SHBA | JavaNews.al" (ēng Eng-gí). 2018-02-11. 2022-10-06 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  17. Le Gro, William (1985). Vietnam from ceasefire to capitulation (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4102-2542-9. 
  18. Pike, John. "Cambodia Civil War, 1970s". www.globalsecurity.org. 
  19. "The rise of Communism". www.footprinttravelguides.com. goân-loē-iông tī 17 November 2010 hőng khó͘-pih. 31 May 2018 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  20. "Hmong rebellion in Laos". Members.ozemail.com.au. 11 April 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  21. "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960–73". goân-loē-iông tī 2 August 2016 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 August 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. , accessed 7 November 2017
  22. Pike, John. "Pathet Lao Uprising". Globalsecurity.org. 
  23. Doyle, Jeff; Grey, Jeffrey; Pierce, Peter (2002). "Australia's Vietnam War – A Select Chronology of Australian Involvement in the Vietnam War" (PDF). Texas A&M University Press. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 Hirschman, Charles; Preston, Samuel; Vu, Manh Loi (December 1995). "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 21 (4): 783. doi:10.2307/2137774. JSTOR 2137774. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Lewy, Guenter (1978). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-987423-1. 
  26. "Battlefield:Vietnam – Timeline". PBS. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Moyar, Mark. "Triumph Regained: The Vietnam War, 1965-1968." Encounter Books, December 2022. Chapter 17 index: "Communists provided further corroboration of the proximity of their casualty figures to American figures in a postwar disclosure of total losses from 1960 to 1975. During that period, they stated, they lost 849,018 killed plus approximately 232,000 missing and 463,000 wounded. Casualties fluctuated considerably from year to year, but a degree of accuracy can be inferred from the fact that 500,000 was 59 percent of the 849,018 total and that 59 percent of the war's days had passed by the time of Fallaci's conversation with Giap. The killed in action figure comes from "Special Subject 4: The Work of Locating and Recovering the Remains of Martyrs From Now Until 2020 And Later Years," downloaded from the Vietnamese government website datafile on 1 December 2017. The above figures on missing and wounded were calculated using Hanoi's declared casualty ratios for the period of 1945 to 1979, during which time the Communists incurred 1.1 million killed, 300,000 missing, and 600,000 wounded. Ho Khang, ed, Lich Su Khang Chien Chong My, Cuu Nuoc 1954-1975, Tap VIII: Toan Thang (Hanoi: Nha Xuat Ban Chinh Tri Quoc Gia, 2008), 463."
  28. "Chuyên đề 4 CÔNG TÁC TÌM KIẾM, QUY TẬP HÀI CỐT LIỆT SĨ TỪ NAY ĐẾN NĂM 2020 VÀ NHỮNG NĂM TIẾP THEO". Datafile.chinhsachquandoi.gov.vn. 11 April 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  29. "Công tác tìm kiếm, quy tập hài cốt liệt sĩ từ nay đến năm 2020 và những năn tiếp theo" [The work of searching and collecting the remains of martyrs from now to 2020 and the next] (ēng Oa̍t-lâm-gí). Ministry of Defence, Government of Vietnam. goân-loē-iông tī 17 December 2018 hőng khó͘-pih. 11 June 2018 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  30. Joseph Babcock (29 April 2019). "Lost Souls: The Search for Vietnam's 300,000 or More MIAs". Pulitzer Centre. 28 June 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  31. Hastings, Max (2018). Vietnam an epic tragedy, 1945–1975. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-240567-8. 
  32. James F. Dunnigan; Albert A. Nofi (2000). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-25282-3. 
  33. "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News Online. 31 March 2000. 18 October 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  34. Thayer, Thomas C. (1985). War Without Fronts: The American Experience in Vietnam. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-7132-0. 
  35. Clarke, Jeffrey J. (1988). United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973. Center of Military History, United States Army. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths 
  36. Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System 
  37. "The Fall of South Vietnam" (PDF). Rand.org. 11 April 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  38. Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (4 May 2021). "2021 NAME ADDITIONS AND STATUS CHANGES ON THE VIETNAM VETERANS MEMORIAL" (Press release). 
  39. National Archives–Vietnam War U.S. Military Fatal Casualties, 15 August 2016, 29 July 2020 khòaⁿ--ê 
  40. "Vietnam War U.S. Military Fatal Casualty Statistics: HOSTILE OR NON-HOSTILE DEATH INDICATOR." U.S. National Archives. 29 April 2008. Accessed 13 July 2019.
  41. America's Wars (PDF) (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2010. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 24 January 2014 hőng khó͘-pih. 
  42. Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. 
  43. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Lawrence
  44. Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005, 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9. 
  45. Kueter, Dale (2007). Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4259-6931-8. 
  46. T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
  47. "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72". Australian War Memorial. 29 June 2013 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  48. "Overview of the war in Vietnam". New Zealand and the Vietnam War. 16 July 1965. goân-loē-iông tī 26 July 2013 hőng khó͘-pih. 29 June 2013 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  49. "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". 2 October 2013. 10 June 2017 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  50. "Vietnam Reds Said to Hold 17 From Taiwan as Spies". The New York Times. 1964. 
  51. Larsen, Stanley (1975). Vietnam Studies Allied Participation in Vietnam (PDF). Department of the Army. ISBN 978-1-5176-2724-9. 
  52. "Asian Allies in Vietnam" (PDF). Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. 18 October 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  53. Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. 24 February 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam. 
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela (23 April 2008). "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme". British Medical Journal. 336 (7659): 1482–1486. doi:10.1136/bmj.a137. PMC 2440905Freely accessible. PMID 18566045. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths ... 3.8 million in Vietnam 
  55. Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970–1979". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. pp. 102–04, 120, 124. ISBN 978-0-309-07334-9. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the 1970s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime. ... Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of 300,000 or less. 
  56. Banister, Judith; Johnson, E. Paige (1993). Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community. Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-938692-49-2. An estimated 275,000 excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality that we can justify for the early 1970s. 
  57. Sliwinski, Marek (1995). Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique [The Khmer Rouge genocide: A demographic analysis]. L'Harmattan. pp. 42–43, 48. ISBN 978-2-7384-3525-5. 

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