Pì āu put oân-tûn bió-im

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Pì āu put uân-tûn guân-im
ɯ
IPA pian-hō 316
pian-bé
HTML bé cha̍p-chìn-ūi ɯ
Unicode cha̍p-la̍k-chìn-ūi U+026F
X-SAMPA Im-piau M
ASCII Im-piau u-
siaⁿ-im
IPA ê bú-im
chêng chhù chêng iong chhù āu āu
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
a • ɶ
ɑ • ɒ
chhù pì
poàn pì
tiong
poàn khai
chhù khai
khai
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Pì āu put uân-tûn guân-im (ing-gú: close back unrounded vowel) hi̍k-tsiá Ko āu put oân-tûn bió-im (ing-gú: high back unrounded vowel)[1] sī tsi̍t-kuá kháu-gú lāi-té sú-iōng ê tsi̍t-tsióng guân-im. Kok-tsè im-piau lāi-té tāi-piáu tsit-ê im ê hû-hō sī ⟨ɯ⟩. Teh pâi-pán tíng-kuân sī kā ⟨m⟩ jī-bú tńg-kuè-lâi ê ⟨ɯ⟩, khó-lū-tio̍h ⟨ɯ⟩ hām jī-bú ⟨u⟩ sóo tāi-piáu ê siañ-im kuan-hē, ⟨ɯ⟩ ē-tàng hông jīm-uî sī ka-siōng ke-tsi̍t-ê "uáñ-kong (u)" ê ⟨u⟩.

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".

Tsham-khó bûn-hiàn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009). "Estonian". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 367–372. doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x. 
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", chū Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", chū Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1999), "American English", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 41–44 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943 
  • Gordon, Matthew J. (2004), "New York, Philadelphia, and other northern cities: phonology", chū Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 282–299, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Labrune, Laurence (2012), The Phonology of Japanese, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954583-4 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–123, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", chū International Phonetic Association, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0 
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993). "Thai". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 23 (1): 24–26. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746. 
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish" (PDF), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7, goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 2018-07-25 hőng khó͘-pih, 2015-11-20 khòaⁿ--ê 
  • Vasconcelos, Eduardo A. (2013). Investigando a hipótese Cayapó do Sul-Panará (PhD). Campinas: University of Campinas. doi:10.47749/T/UNICAMP.2013.929939. 
  • Alves, Ana Carolina Ferreira (2013). "Aspectos do sistema fonológico de Arara (Karib)". Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas. 8 (2). doi:10.1590/S1981-81222013000200003. 
  • dos Anjos, Zoraide (2012). "Fonologia Katukina-Kanamari". LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas. 12 (1). doi:10.20396/liames.v0i12.1486. 

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