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Ancestral taxa
Domain: Eukaryota  [Taxonomy; edit]
Kài: Plantae  [Taxonomy; edit]
Clade: Angiosperms  [Taxonomy; edit]
Clade: Eudicots  [Taxonomy; edit]
Clade: Core eudicots  [Taxonomy; edit]
Clade: Superasterids  [Taxonomy; edit]
Clade: Asterids  [Taxonomy; edit]
Clade: Campanulids  [Taxonomy; edit]
Bo̍k: Asterales  [Taxonomy; edit]
Kho: Asteraceae  [Taxonomy; edit]
A-kho: Carduoideae  [Taxonomy; edit]
Tribe: Cynareae  [Taxonomy; edit]
Subtribe: Centaureinae  [Taxonomy; edit]

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Parent: Cynareae [Taxonomy; edit]
Rank: subtribus (displays as Subtribe)
Link: Centaureinae
Extinct: no
Always displayed: no
Taxonomic references:
Parent's taxonomic references: Panero, JL; VA Funk (2002-12-30). "Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Biological Society of Washington. 115 (4): 909–922. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 2006-09-14 hőng khó͘-pih. 2007-08-12 khòaⁿ--ê.