Pe̍h-ōe-jī ê le̍k-sú

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Kóng-gī ê Pe̍h-ōe-jī chì-chió ū 150-tang ê le̍k-sú.

Pe̍h-ōe-jī tī Tang-lâm-a, Hok-kiàn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Lûn-tun Soan-tō-hōe ê soan-tō-su Robert Marrison kap William Milne tī 1815 nî ùi Melaka khai-siat Eng-Hôa Ha̍k-īⁿ (Anglo-Chinese College). Tông-sî kâng soan-tō-hōe ê soan-tō-su, chhiūⁿ W. H. Medhurst, tùi Lâm-iûⁿ kóng Hokkien ê kiâu-bîn ("hoan-kheh") khak ū chiap-chhio̍k, ū hèng-chhù tī Hok-kiàn-ōe (hokkien). Medhurst tī 1820 nî chiō ùi Melaka hoat-piáu chi̍t pún sió jī-lūi chheh, kàu 1837 nî ê sî, i koh tī Má-kháu chhut-pán Hok-kiàn Hong-giân Jī-tián (A Dictionary of the Hok-keen Dialect of the Chinese Language).[1]

Tiong-kok chhiam Lâm-kiaⁿ Tiâu-iok liáu-āu in chiah khah ū chū-iû tī Hok-kiàn o̍ah-tōng. 1852 nî tī Ē-mn̂g chhut-pán ê Tn̂g-ōe Hoan-jī Chho͘-ha̍k (唐話番字初學), sī thôan-kàu-sū Talmage ūi-tio̍h beh kà lâng iōng Lô-m̄á-jī siá Ē-mn̂g-ōe só· pian-siá--ê.

Pe̍h-ōe-jī tī Tâi-oân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Pe̍h-ōe-jī tāi-iok tī 19 sè-kí, iû thôan-kàu-sū ín ji̍p Tâi-ôan.

17 sè-kí ê Tâi-oân Lâm-tó-gí-hē lô-má-jī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Lī-iōng Lô-má-jī tòng-chò su-siá hē-thóng, tī Tâi-ôan ū nn̄g-ê kai-tōaⁿ. Tē-it-ê kai-tōaⁿ sī 17 sè-kí kàu 19 sè-kí chho·-kî ê Sin-káng-bûn, che sī tī 17 sè-kí Hô-lân thóng-tī Tâi-oân ê sî, iû Hô-lân thôan-kàu-sū ín-ji̍p, iōng lâi su-siá hit-tong-sî Tâi-ôan lâm-pō Siraya pêⁿ-po·-cho̍k ê bó-gí.

Tong-kî-sî thôan-kàu ê tùi-siōng, ùi Tâi-lâm ê Sin-káng-siā khai-sí, sòa--lo̍h-lâi thui-hêng kàu Tōa-ba̍k-kàng (大目降), Ba̍k-ka-liu-oan (目加溜灣), Siau-lâng (蕭壟), kap Môa-tāu (麻豆) téng siā. Thôan-kàu-sū iōng Lô-má-jī su-siá Siraya bó-gí ê Sèng-keng, Kî-tó-bûn, kap Si̍p-kài téng-téng. Tī kong-gôan 1637 nî, ia̍h-tio̍h-sī Hô-lân-lâng lâi Tâi 13 nî liáu-āu, Pêⁿ-po·-cho̍k gôan-chū-bîn í-keng ū 5400 chó-iū ê lâng ji̍p-kàu, kî-tiong Sin-káng-siā sī kok siā tiong-kan chiap-siū Ki-tok-kàu siāng chhim ê chi̍t-ê, só·-í hit-tong-sî ê Lô-má-jī hē-thóng, tī Sin-káng-siā mā sī siāng phó·-phiàn--ê, in-chhú chiah hō-chò Sin-káng-bûn, iū-koh in-ūi sī Hô-lân-lâng ín-ji̍p--ê, só·-í mā hō-chò Âng-mn̂g-jī.

Hô-lân-lâng lī-khui liáu-aū, Hàn-jîn chìn-ji̍p Tâi-ôan khai-khún. Pêⁿ-po·-cho̍k-jîn kap Hàn-jîn chhiam-tèng thó·-tē bé-bē khè-iok ê sî, iû-gôan sú-iōng Sin-káng-bûn, Hàn-jī kā chit-chióng khè-iok hō-chò "hoan-á-khè", hiān-chú-sî só· pó-liû--lo̍h-lâi-ê, chha-put-to ū 150 hūn chó-iū. Kin-kì 村上直次郎 ê gián-kiù, bo̍k-chêng chai-iáⁿ siāng chá ê hoan-á-khè, sī tī 1683 nî siá--ê, siāng oàⁿ--ê sī 1813 nî, khó-kiàn tī Hô-lân-lâng lī-khui Tâi-ôan liáu-aū ê chit-pah gōa nî tiong-kan, Siraya ê Pêⁿ-po·-cho̍k iáu-koh ū lâng sú-iōng Sin-káng-bûn, tòng-chò in ê su-bīn-gí.

19 sè-kí ê Hō-ló-oē lô-má-jī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1933 nî tī Tâi-oân chhut-pán ê Ē-mn̂g-im Sin-kū-iok ê Sèng-keng

Aū--lâi, it-ti̍t kàu 19 sè-kí ê aū-pòaⁿ-kî, chiah-koh ū tōa-liōng ê thôan-kàu-sū lâi Tâi-ôan. Kâng-khoán ê tō-lí, ūi-tio̍h beh chìn-hêng thôan-kàu ê kang-chok, thôan-kàu-sū koh-chi̍t-pái ín-ji̍p Lô-má-jī, hong-piān su-siá Hō-ló-oē ê Sèng-keng ia̍h-sī kî-thāⁿ ê khan-bu̍t, chìn-hêng kàu-gī ê soan-thôan. Chit-ê sî-kî ín-ji̍p ê Lô-má-jī su-siá hē-thóng, tio̍h-sī koh-khah-chá chìn-chêng, thôan-kàu-sū tī Tiong-kok tang-lâm iân-hái séng-hūn tn̂g-kî sú-iōng ê hē-thóng.

Tī Tâi-ôan, chit-thò Lô-má-jī ê su-siá hē-thóng, hō-chò Pe̍h-ōe-jī ( sok-siá "POJ" ), ia̍h ū lâng kā kiò-chò Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī, kán-chheng Kàu-lô. POJ ê thui-hêng í Tiúⁿ-ló-kàu-hōe ûi-chú, iû-kî sī James L. Maxwell i-su, thui-kóng POJ chin-chiàⁿ kut-la̍t, táⁿ-phò hit-tong-sî it-poan tāi-chiòng ha̍k-si̍p Hàn-jī ê khùn-kéng kap bô-hong-piān, m̄-nā phó·-kip kàu-gī ê soan-thôan, mā hong-piān gí-giân ê kì-lo̍k.

POJ ê chheh kap khan-bu̍t, tî-liáu chhām kàu-hōe siong-koan--ê í-gōa, iah-koh ū kî-thaⁿ hong-bīn--ê, chhin-chhūⁿ tī 1917 nî, Eng-kok i-su G. Gushue-Taylor (Hàn-miâ: 戴仁壽) kap Tâi-ôan-lâng Tân Tōa-lô (Hàn-jī: 陳大鑼) ha̍p-pian ê Lāi-gōa-kho khan-hō͘-ha̍k, sī Tâi-ôan tē-it pún hō͘-lí-ha̍k ê kàu-kho-su;

20 sè-kí ê Tâi-oân Kheh-ōe Pe̍h-ōe-jī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1950 nî-tāi, Bí-lông Kàu-hōe ê Png Kóng-seng (Kheh-oē: Fông Kóng-sên 方廣生) bo̍k-su pian-siá Tâi-oân Lâm-pak Thóng-it Kheh-ka Pe̍h-ōe-jī Kàu-kho-su (Kheh-gí: Thòi-vân Nàm-pet Thúng-yit Hak-kâ Pha̍k-fa Sṳ Kau-khô Sû).

Sú-iōng jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kin-kù Tâi-lâm Hú-siâⁿ Kàu-hoē Pò 1898 nî ê tiāu-cha, hoê-hâm ê 41 ê kàu-hoē tang-tiong, bat POJ ê cha-po· ū 985 lâng, cha-bó· 509 lâng, lóng-chóng 1494 lâng. Khó-kiàn hit-tong-sî liōng-kî-iok bat POJ ê jîn-kháu chiong-kīn 2000 ê.

N̂g Tián-sêng ( 黃典誠, Ē-mn̂g Tāi-ha̍k ) 1955 nî ê thóng-kè jīn-ûi tng-sî POJ ê thoân-pò· tē-khu kap jîn-sò· sī án-ne:

Tē-khu Jîn-sò·
Hok-kiàn 34,000
Kńg-tang 1,000
Tâi-oân 32,000
Kî-thaⁿ séng-chhī 8,000
Oa̍t-lâm 2,000
Myanmar 1,500
Thài-kok 7,000
Hui-li̍p-pin 7,000
Má-lâi-a 10,000
Ìn-nî 10,000
Kî-thaⁿ kok-ka, tē-khu 3,000
Lóng-chóng 115,500

Pe̍h-ōe-jī siá-hoat ê ián-piàn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Pe̍h-ōe-jī siá-hoat ê ián-piàn
IPA Doty MacGowan Douglas Warnshuis, De Pree Campbell Barclay
ɔ
ts ch ch ts ch ts ts
en ian ien ien ian ian ien
ieng eng eng eng eng eng

ts/ch/chh[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chá kî ê Pe̍h-ōe-jī ū ts/ch/chh ê khu-hun.

i e a o u ng
-sàng-khùi ts tsa tso tso͘ tsu tsng
-sàng-khùi ch chi che
+sàng-khùi chh chhi chhe chha chho chho͘ chhu chhng

Pó·-chhiong Pe̍h-oē-jī ê thê-àn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tâi-oân Tāi-ha̍k gí-giân-ha̍k-hē Tiuⁿ Jū-hông kàu-siū tī Pe̍h-oē-jī Ki-pún-lūn (2001, ISBN 957-2053-07-8) chèng-sek thê-chhut POJ ke-thiⁿ kúi-ê-á sin hû-hō ê kiàn-gī.

Pe̍h-oē-jī sò͘-ūi-hòa ê hoat-tián[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chhiáⁿ chham-khó Tiān-náu chhú-lí Pe̍h-ōe-jī.

Chèng-tī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. 賴永祥 (1988-06-26). "教會白話字的源流". 教會史話. 

Sòaⁿ-téng chu-gôan[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]