Phīⁿ-hòa goân-im

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋
Phīñ-im-huà [en]
◌̃
IPA pian-hō 424
pian-bé
HTML bé cha̍p-chìn-ūi ̃
Unicode cha̍p-la̍k-chìn-ūi U+0303

Phīñ-huà guân-im (phīñ-huà bó-im; puàñ phīñ-im, phīñ-khiuñ guân-im, guân-im phīñ-im-huà; ing-gú: nasal vowel) sī huat-im ê sî-tsūn khuì [en]tshuì-khang kah phīñ-lak kāng sî-tsūn lâu-tshut ê guân-im (bó-im). kok-tsè im-piau hām phûtôgâ-gí lóng tshái-iōng pho-lōng-hû [en] "~" /Tilde (diacritic).svg/ kǹg-teh guân-im jī-bó tíng-kuân [en] lâi piau-sī phīñ-im-huà [en] ê im-sòo.[1]

Sú-iōng gí-giân[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

I-hā ê gí-gên lóng-ū sú-iōng tio̍h phīñ-huà [en] guân-im jī-bó.

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Бондарко Л. В. Гласные // Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь / Главный редактор В. Н. Ярцева. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1990. — 685 с. — ISBN 5-85270-031-2. (Gô-gú)
  2. 羅常培 [en](周辨明 [zh]),"廈門音系--Phonetics and Phonology of the Amoy Dialect(及其音韻聲調之構造與性質)",祥生出版社,臺北市,1975年3月台一版. 內版台業字:第2164號. (Hàn-gí)

Tsham-khó bûn-hèn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Beddor, P. S. 1983. Phonological and phonetic effects of nasalization on vowel height (Eng-gí)
  • Juliette Blevins (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: The Emergence of Sound Patterns. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. (Eng-gí)
  • John Hajek, chapitre 10 [archive] « Vowel Nasalization » dans Martin Haspelmath (dir.), Matthew S. Dryer (dir.), David Gil (dir.) and Bernard Comrie (dir.), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Munich, Max Planck Digital Library, 2011 (ISBN 978-3-9813099-1-1) (Eng-gí)
  • Juliette Blevins (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: The Emergence of Sound Patterns. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. (Eng-gí)
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 134. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. (Eng-gí)
  • The World Atlas of Language Structures Online – Chapter 10 – Vowel Nasalization (Eng-gí)

Ên-sin ua̍t-to̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • de Medeiros, Beatriz Raposo. (2011). Nasal Coda and Vowel Nasality in Brazilian Portuguese. In S. M. Alvord (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Romance Phonology (pp. 33-45). (Eng-gí)
  • Hajek, John & Maeda, Shinji. (2000). Investigating Universals of Sound Change: the Effect of Vowel Height and Duration on the Development of Distinctive Nasalization. Papers in Laboratory Phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon (pp. 52-69). (Eng-gí)
  • Jeong, Sunwoo. (2012). Directional asymmetry in nasalization: Aperceptual account. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology, 18(3), 437-469. (Eng-gí)
  • Michaud, A., Jacques, G., & Rankin, R. L. (2012). Historical transfer of nasality between consonantal onset and vowel: from C to V or from V to C? Diachronica, 29(2), 201-230. (Eng-gí)
  • Sampson, Rodney. (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. (Eng-gí)

Tsham-ua̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Guā-pōo lên-ket[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Wiktionary-logo.svg
Khì Wiktionary chhâ
Nasal vowel chit ê sû.