Pho-lân-gí jī-bó-hē

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Phô-lân-gí jī-bó-hē. Phú-sek tāi-piáu chāi-lâi tan-jī bô ēng--ê.

Pho-lân-gí jī-bó-hēPho-lân-gí ê bûn-jī. sī Pho-lân-gí chiàⁿ-jī-hoat ê ki-chhó͘. In-ê ki-pún sī Latin jī-bó-hē (Lô-má-jī), lēng-gōa koh ka chiūⁿ chi̍t kóa jī-bó sī tàu phiat-im hû-hō, chhiūⁿ tàu kreska ia̍h chiam-tiám (eng. acute accent) ê ć, ń, ó, ś, ź; tàu téng-tiám (overdot) ia̍h kropka ê ż; tàu bóe-tiám (tail) ia̍h ogonek ê ą, ę; koh ū tàu chi̍t phiat ê ł. Jī-bó q, v kap x, ka-ta ēng tī gōa-gí tan-jī, tiāⁿ bô sǹg tī Pho-lân-gí jī-bó-hē lāi-bīn. Chóng-sī ùi Pho-lân-gí ê phiau-chú-hòa chìn-chêng, "x" jī-bó ū-sî hông ēng tī "ks" ê tiûⁿ-ha̍p.[1]

Silesia-gí kap Kashubia-gí, mā sú-ēng keng-kòe siu-kái ê Pho-lân-gí jī-bó-hē piàn-khoán, nā Sorbia-gí sī ēng Pho-lân-gí kap Chesko-gí chiàⁿ-jī-hoat ê saⁿ-lām.

Jī-bó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Nā bô hâm Q, V kap X are excluded, Pho-lân-gí jī-bó-hē lóng-chóng ū 32 ê jī-bó: 9-ê bó-im kap 23-ê chú-im.

Ē-té ê piáu khai-liat chia ê jī-bó, in-ê Pho-lân-gí hō-miâ, it-poaⁿ tī Pho-lân-gí ê ho͘-im, tī pa̍t khoán giân-gí (chia chú-iàu ēng Eng-gí) ê tùi-tâng, kap kî-tha ê khó-lêng ho͘-im. Ūi chheng-chhó mā piau phiat-im hû-hô.

Tōa-jī Sió-jī Pho-lân-gí hō-miâ It-poaⁿ ho͘-im Gōa-gí tùi-tâng Kî-tha ho͘-im
A a a /ä/ Eng-gí ê large kháu-kòa chú-im (palatal consonant) tiong-ng sī khah thâu-chêng ê [a]
Ą ą ą /ɔ̃/ phiⁿ-im o ná Eng-gí ê own [ɔn], [ɔŋ], [ɔm]; tī /w/ chìn-chêng chham /ɔ/ sio-ha̍p
B b be /b/ Óa Tâi-gí ê bô bô-siaⁿ-hòa (devoiced) ê sî sī [p]
C c ce /t̪͡s̪/ Eng-gí ê pits ū-siaⁿ-hòa (voiced) ê sî sī [d̪͡z̪].
Ć ć cie /t͡ɕ/ Eng-gí ê cheap ū-siaⁿ-hòa sī [d͡ʑ]
D d de // Eng-gí ê dog /d͡ʐ/ chìn-chêng sī []; bô-siaⁿ-hòa sī []; /t͡ʂ/ chìn-chêng sī [].[1]
E e e /ɛ/ Eng-gí ê bed tī kháu-kòa chú-im tiong-ng sī [e]
Ę ę ę /ɛ̃/ phiⁿ-im e [ɛn], [ɛŋ], [ɛm]; tī /w/ chìn-chêng kap /ɛ/ sio-ha̍p
F f ef /f/ Eng-gí ê fingers ū-siaⁿ-hòa sī [v]
G g gie /ɡ/ Tâi-gí ê gô bô-siaⁿ-hòa sī [k]
H h ha /x/ So͘-kat-lân-gí ê loch [ɣ] if voiced, may be glottal [ɦ] in a small number of dialects. For ch and (c)hi see Digraphs
I i i /i/ Tâi-gí ê ti chú-im tiong-ng sī [j]; piáu-hiān chêng chi̍t chú-im ê kháu-kòa-hòa (palatization)
J j jot /j/ Eng-gí ê yes
K k ka /k/ Tâi-gí ê ko ū-siaⁿ-hòa sī [ɡ]
L l el /l/ Tâi-gí ê lô Tang-po͘ hong-giân khó-lêng ho͘ [lʲ]
Ł ł /w/ Eng-gí ê will Tang-po͘ hong-giân khó-lêng ho͘ [ɫ̪]
M m em /m/ Tâi-gí ê mī chûn-khí chú-im (labiodental consonant) chìn-chêng sī [ɱ]
N n en // Tâi-gí ê nâ /t͡ʂ d͡ʐ/ chìn-chêng sī []; tī /k ɡ/ chìn-chêng thang sī [ŋ].
Ń ń /ɲ̟/ Eng-gí ê canyon Can be [] in syllable coda
O o o /ɔ/ Tâi-gí ê s tī kháu-kòa chú-im tiong-ng sī [o]
Ó ó ó, o z kreską or u zamknięte /u/ Tâi-gí ê su tī kháu-kòa chú-im tiong-ng sī [ʉ]
P p pe /p/ Eng-gí ê spot ū-siaⁿ-hòa sī [b]
R r er /r/ chūn-im r kóng-ōe kín ê sî tiāⁿ sī [ɾ]
S s es // Eng-gí ê sea
Ś ś /ɕ/ Eng-gí ê sheep ū-siaⁿ-hòa sī [ʑ] (cf. Ź)
T t te // Eng-gí ê start [] before /t͡ʂ/; [] if voiced; [] before /d͡ʐ/.[2]
U u u, u zwykłe or u otwarte /u/ Tâi-gí ê su tī kháu-kòa chú-im tiong-ng sī [ʉ]
W w wu /v/ Eng-gí ê vow bô-siaⁿ-hòa sī [f]
Y y y ia̍h igrek /ɘ̟/[3] Eng-gí ê té i, ná bit
Z z zet // Eng-gí ê zoo bô-siaⁿ-hòa sī [].
Ź ź ziet /ʑ/ Eng-gí ê vision bô-siaⁿ-hòa sī [ɕ]
Ż ż żet or zet z kropką /ʐ/ Eng-gí ê vision bô-siaⁿ-hòa sī [ʂ]
^ /t.t͡ʂ d.d͡ʐ/ khó-lêng ho͘ chiūⁿ [t͡ʂː d͡ʐː].
^ /ɘ/ khah chia̍p kì chò /ɨ/, ū-sî /ɪ/.

Jī-bó q (hō-miâ ku), v (hō-miâ fau), kap x (hō-miâ iks) bô sǹg Pho-lân-gí jī-bó-hē chi̍t hūn, m̄-koh ū ēng lâi piáu-sī gōa-gí tan-jī kap siong-phiau téng-bīn. Tī chioh-jī (ia̍h sī kóng gōa-lâi-gí), in tiāⁿ hông hun-pia̍t thè-ōaⁿ chò ''kw, w, kap ks, pí-lūn kwarc "quartz", weranda "veranda", ekstra "extra" téng tan-jī.

Jī-bó ê hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Téng-bīn kì ê jī-bó hō-miâ, sī hán tit hông siá--chhut-lâi, tû-liáu tī te̍k-pia̍t ê gí-lūi-hòa sio̍k-siá, pí-lūn ū chi̍t keng gîn-hâng hō Pekao chit-ê miâ, sī piáu-hiān tùi P.K.O. ê kán-lio̍k.

Ū-ê jī-bó khó-lêng ē ēng lēng-gōa ê hong-hoat chí-miâ, kî-tiong tiāⁿ sī ti̍t-chiap ēng in-ê ho͘-im lâi kiò, chhiūⁿ Y khó-lêng hông kiò chò y, m̄-sī ēng igrek.

Teh ké-soeh tàu-jī ê sî-chūn, te̍k-pia̍t ê jī-bó ū khó-lêng ēng te̍k-sû hong-sek piáu-ta̍t lâi chò khu-pia̍t. Pí-lūn H thang chí-miâ chò samo h ("tan-to̍k h") lâi kap CH (ce ha) khu-pia̍t. Jī-bó Ż thang kiò chò żet (ia̍h zet) z kropką ("ū tiám ê Ż") lâi kap RZ (er zet) khu-pia̍t. Jī-bó U thang kiò u otwarte ("khui-kháu ê u", piáu-hiān siá-hoat), lâi kap Ó khu-pia̍t, nā chit-ê Ó thang hō u zamknięte ("ha̍p-kháu ê u") ia̍h o kreskowane ("tòa phiat ê o").

Jī-bó-sūn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Pho-lân-gí ê jī-bó-sūn chiàu téng-bīn ê piáu pâi-lia̍t. Q, V kap X, nā ū ēng ê sî, chiàu in tī phó͘-thong Lô-má-jī ê chē-ūi pâi-lia̍t.

Pho-lân-gí tàu phiat-im hû-hô ê jī-bó, tī pâi sūn-sī ê sî-chūn sī sǹg chò goân-choân to̍k-li̍p--ê. Pí-lūn być ài pâi tī bycie āu-piah. Phiat-im jī-bó tī jī-tián lāi-bīn oa-ná ū in choan-bûn ê chiuⁿ-chat, chhiūⁿ ć jī-thâu ê jī, sī bô khai-lia̍t tī c ê pō͘-hūn.

Siang-jī-bó tī jī-bó-sūn bô te̍k-pia̍t ê chhù-lí. Pí-lūn ch to̍h kán-tan sǹg chò c ê āu-piah ū h, bô chhiūⁿ Chesko-gí án-ne tòng chò chi̍t-ê jī-bó.

Kî-tha chu-liāu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "GDL Statute". Wikimedia Commons. 4 November 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 

Gōa-pō͘ liân-kiat[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]