Tēng-gī

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Tēng-gī sī chí chiam-tùi chi̍t hāng piáu-tat ê ké-soeh kiam sán chhut che ké-soeh ê khang-khòe. Hông tēng-gī ê tùi-siòng kiò chò pī-tēng-gī-gú (eng. definiendum), thê-kiong tēng-gī ê tîn-su̍t thang kiò tēng-gī-kù (definiens). Pí-lūn tī thâu-chêng ê tîn-su̍t lāi-té, "tēng-gī" chi̍t-ê tan-jī chiō sī pī-tēng-gī-gú, nā āu-piah ê ké-soeh bûn-kù "sī chí chiam-tùi chi̍t hāng piáu-tat ê ké-soeh...", chiō sī tēng-gī-kù.[1]

Hêng-sek[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Si̍t-chè kap miâ-gī tēng-gī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tùi John Locke si̍t-chè pún-chit (real essence) kap miâ-gī pún-chit (nominal essence) koan-liām lâi hoat-tián, thang kā tēng-gī khu-hun chhut si̍t-chè-tek kap miâ-gī-tek nn̄g khoán. Bó͘ chi̍t iōng-gí ê si̍t-chè tēng-gī sī su-iàu tiâu-cha mi̍h-kiāⁿ pún-sin lâi liáu-kái--ê; nā miâ-gī tēng-gī sī su-iàu óa-khò tiāu-cha hit jī ê ì-sù kap sú-iōng liâi liáu-kái.[2]

Jī-tián tēng-gī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chi̍t hāng jī-tián-sek ê tēng-gī, sī siat lâi beh thê-kiong chhiong-chiok ê chu-sìn piáu-tat tùi iōng-gí ê chi̍t chióng lí-kái. Chóng-sī pí-lūn nā tiat-ha̍k-kài tùi ēng-gí tēng-gī ê thó-lūn, it-poaⁿ m̄-sī jī-tián thang thê-kiong--ê.[2]

Iok-sok tēng-gī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Iok-sok-tek (stipulative) tēng-gī sī chiam-tùi siū tēng-gī ê iōng-gí siat-tēng ì-sù, jî-chhiá bô su-iàu chham-khó iōng-gí chá-chêng ê sú-iōng lí-lō͘. Pí-lūn nā kóng "Jack the Ripper sī bô͘-sat X, YX, Y kap ZZ ê lâng" chi̍t khoán tîn-su̍t, pī-tēng-gī ê Jack the Ripper sī kò͘-tēng tùi-siòng ê lâng-miâ, m̄-koh āu-piah ê ké-soeh m̄-sī kò͘-tēng--ê, i bô hoat-tō͘ chin-chiàⁿ kap Jack the Ripper hō͘-siōng thè-ōaⁿ, só͘-í koh ài ka-thiam iok-sok ê tîn-su̍t ", nā sī hia bô͘-sat-àn sī choan-bûn chi̍t-ê lâng chhòng--ê" chìn chi̍t-pō͘ hān-tēng tùi-siòng.[2]

Kì-su̍t tēng-gī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kì-su̍t-tek (descriptive) tēng-gī, tû-liáu kóng-bêng ì-sù, mā beh móa-chiok kì-tēng ê sú-iōng. Pún khoán ê tēng-gī chiàu in móa-chiok ê thêng-tō͘ koh thang khu-hun chò saⁿ téng: gōa-chāi gōa-chāi-sèng (extensional), lōe-chāi-sèng (intensional), kap kám-siū-sèng (sense).[2]

Ké-soeh tēng-gī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ké-soeh-tek (explicative) tēng-gī sī te̍k-pia̍t chun-siú bó͘ chi̍t iōng-gí ê tiong-sim pō͘-hūn ê sú-iōng, koh tùi gōa-gûi pō͘-hūn ēng iok-sok ê hêng-sek chhù-lí. Ké-soeh tēng-gī thang hông ēng tī put-oân-boán ê khài-liām.[2]

Tēng-gī kap me̍h-lo̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tēng-gī ê tîn-su̍t su-iàu chiap-siū-chiá tùi tēng-gī-kù sū-sian ê liáu-kái, chiah thang thê-chhut thang thè-ōaⁿ pī-tēng-gī-gú ê tēng-gī-kù. Ū-ê tēng-gī pí-kàu lâi kóng khah bô su-iàu me̍h-lo̍k, ia̍h chiō sī pōe-kéng chu-sìn, pí-lūn kóng "a-pah sī chhin-tāi lāi cha-po͘--ê" chi̍t khoán tîn-su̍t. Chìn chi̍t pō͘ ū chi̍t chióng tēng-gī, tēng-gī-kù lāi-bīn koh ēng tio̍h pī-tēng-gī-gú, pí-lūn kóng "x sī y ê ti̍t-hē chó͘-sian, nā chhiá ta nā (if and only if) x sī y ê chhin-tāi he̍k-chiá x sī y ê ti̍t-hē chó͘-sian" chi̍t khoán tîn-su̍t, tī tēng-gī-kù koh ēng tio̍h chi̍t pái pī-tēng-gī-gú, chi̍t khoán chêng-hêng hō chò chài-kui (recursive).[1]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. 1.0 1.1 G. Longworth (2009). "Definitions: Uses and Varieties of". Concise Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Language and Linguistic. Elsevier Science. ISBN 9780080965017. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Anil Gupta. "Definitions". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab. ISSN 1095-5054. 2017-05-07 khòaⁿ--ê.