Thoàⁿ-sò͘

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Thoàⁿ-sò͘,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), the two most well-known allotropes of carbon
Carbon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of carbon
Ki-pún sèng-chit
Miâ, hû-hō Thoàⁿ-sò͘, C
Eng-bûn carbon
Tông-sò͘-thé graphite, diamond
Gōa-hêng graphite: black
diamond: clear
Thoàⁿ-sò͘ tī chiu-kî-piáu lāi ê ūi-tì
Chúi-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Hāi (goân-sò͘) (hi-iú khì-thé)
Lî-sò͘ (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Beryllium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Phêng-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Thoàⁿ-sò͘ (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Chit-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Sng-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Hut-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Ne-óng (hi-iú khì-thé)
Natrium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Magnesium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
A-lú-mih (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Si-lí-khóng (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Lîn (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Liû-hông (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Iâm-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Argon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Kah-sò͘ (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Khā-lú-siúm (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Scandium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Titanium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Vanadium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Chromium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Manganese (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Thih (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Cobalt (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Nickel (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tâng (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
A-iân (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Gallium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Germanium (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Phi-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Selenium (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Chhàu-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Krypton (hi-iú khì-thé)
Rubidium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Strontium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Yttrium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Zirconium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Niobium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Molybdenum (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Technetium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Ruthenium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Rhodium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Palladium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Gîn (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Cadmium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Indium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Siah (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Antimony (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Tellurium (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Ak-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Xenon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Caesium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Barium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Lanthanum (lanthanum-hē)
Cerium (lanthanum-hē)
Praseodymium (lanthanum-hē)
Neodymium (lanthanum-hē)
Promethium (lanthanum-hē)
Samarium (lanthanum-hē)
Europium (lanthanum-hē)
Gadolinium (lanthanum-hē)
Terbium (lanthanum-hē)
Dysprosium (lanthanum-hē)
Holmium (lanthanum-hē)
Erbium (lanthanum-hē)
Thulium (lanthanum-hē)
Ytterbium (lanthanum-hē)
Lutetium (lanthanum-hē)
Hafnium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tantalum (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tungsten (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Rhenium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Osmium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Iridium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Pe̍h-kim (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Kim (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Chúi-gîn (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Thallium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Iân (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Bismuth (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Polonium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Astatine (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Radon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Francium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Radium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Actinium (actinium-hē)
Thorium (actinium-hē)
Protactinium (actinium-hē)
Uranium (actinium-hē)
Neptunium (actinium-hē)
Plutonium (actinium-hē)
Americium (actinium-hē)
Curium (actinium-hē)
Berkelium (actinium-hē)
Californium (actinium-hē)
Einsteinium (actinium-hē)
Fermium (actinium-hē)
Mendelevium (actinium-hē)
Nobelium (actinium-hē)
Lawrencium (actinium-hē)
Rutherfordium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Dubnium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Seaborgium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Bohrium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Hassium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Meitnerium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Darmstadtium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Roentgenium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Copernicium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Ununtrium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Flerovium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Ununpentium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Livermorium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Ununseptium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Ununoctium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)


C

Si
phêng-sò͘Thoàⁿ-sò͘chit-sò͘
Goân-chú-hoan 6
Goân-chú-liōng 12.011[1] (12.0096–12.0116)[2]
Goân-sò͘ lūi-pia̍t to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k
sometimes considered a metalloid
Cho̍k, hun-khu 14·2·p
Chiu-kî tē 2 chiu-kî
Tiān-chú pâi-lia̍t [He] 2s2 2p2
per shell 2, 4
Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit
Siòng kò͘-thé
Sublimation point 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Bi̍t-tō͘  (sek-un) amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3[3]
graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Sam-siòng-tiám 4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[4][5]
Iûⁿ-hoà-jia̍t graphite: 117 kJ·mol−1
Jia̍t-iông-liōng graphite: 8.517 J·mol−1·K−1
diamond: 6.155 J·mol−1·K−1
Goân-chú sèng-chit
Sng-hòa-sò͘ +4, +3,[6] +2, +1,[7] 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[8] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Tiān-hū-tō͘ Pauling scale: 2.55
Tiān-lī-lêng 1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
(more)
Kiōng-kè pòaⁿ-kèng sp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals pòaⁿ-kèng 170 pm
Cha̍p-lio̍k
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō graphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: Thoàⁿ-sò͘

(black)
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō diamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for Thoàⁿ-sò͘
Siaⁿ-sok (sòe kùn-á) diamond: 18,350 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Jia̍t-phòng-tiòng diamond: 0.8 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)[9]
Jia̍t-thoân-tō-lu̍t graphite: 119–165 W·m−1·K−1
diamond: 900–2300 W·m−1·K−1
Tiān-chó͘-lu̍t graphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[10]
Chû-sèng diamagnetic[11]
Young hē-sò͘ diamond: 1050 GPa[9]
Shear hē-sò͘ diamond: 478 GPa[9]
Bulk hē-sò͘ diamond: 442 GPa[9]
Poisson pí diamond: 0.1[9]
Mohs ngē-tō͘ graphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS teng-kì pian-hō 7440-44-0
Le̍k-sú
Hoat-hiān Egyptians and Sumerians[12] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[13] (1789)
Chòe ún-tēng ê tông-ūi-sò͘
Chú bûn-chiong: Thoàⁿ-sò͘ ê tông-ūi-sò͘
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.156 14N

Thoàⁿ-sò͘ (炭素)[14]hoà-ha̍k hû-hō C, goân-chú-hoan 6, ê 1 chióng hoà-ha̍k goân-sò͘. Thoàⁿ-sò͘ sī 1 chióng hui-kim-sio̍k (nonmetal), ū 4 ê goân-chú-kè (valency) ê goân-sò͘, i ū chin chē tông-sò͘-thé (allotropy), pí-lūn kóng soān-chio̍h he̍k-chiá sī chio̍h-ba̍k.

Thoàⁿ-sò͘ mā sī cho͘-sêng iú-ki-bu̍t ê chú-iàu sêng-hun, sī kò͘-chō chhut tē-kiû téng seng-bu̍t ê ki-pún goân-sò͘.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Conventional Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  3. Pang-bô͘:RubberBible86th
  4. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  5. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  6. Pang-bô͘:Citeweb
  7. Pang-bô͘:Citeweb
  8. Pang-bô͘:Citeweb
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  10. https://www.nde-ed.org/GeneralResources/MaterialProperties/ET/ET_matlprop_Misc_Matls.htm
  11. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  12. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. 2008-09-12 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. 2007-11-24 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. 炭素, Tâi-Ji̍t Tōa Sû-tián