Thoàⁿ-sò͘

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Thiàu khì: se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Thoàⁿ-sò͘,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), the two most well-known allotropes of carbon
Carbon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of carbon
Ki-pún sèng-chit
Miâ, hû-hō Thoàⁿ-sò͘, C
Eng-bûn carbon
Tông-sò͘-thé graphite, diamond
Gōa-hêng graphite: black
diamond: clear
Thoàⁿ-sò͘ tī chiu-kî-piáu lāi ê ūi-tì
Chúi-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Hāi (goân-sò͘) (hi-iú khì-thé)
Lî-sò͘ (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Beryllium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Phêng-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Thoàⁿ-sò͘ (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Chit-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Sng-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Hut-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Ne-óng (hi-iú khì-thé)
Natrium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Magnesium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
A-lú-mih (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Si-lí-khóng (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Lîn (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Liû-hông (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Iâm-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Argon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Kah-sò͘ (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Khā-lú-siúm (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Scandium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Titanium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Vanadium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Chromium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Manganese (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Thih (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Cobalt (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Nickel (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tâng (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
A-iân (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Gallium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Germanium (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Phi-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Selenium (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Chhàu-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Krypton (hi-iú khì-thé)
Rubidium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Strontium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Yttrium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Zirconium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Niobium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Molybdenum (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Technetium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Ruthenium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Rhodium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Palladium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Gîn (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Cadmium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Indium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Siah (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Antimony (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Tellurium (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Ak-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Xenon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Caesium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Barium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Lanthanum (lanthanum-hē)
Cerium (lanthanum-hē)
Praseodymium (lanthanum-hē)
Neodymium (lanthanum-hē)
Promethium (lanthanum-hē)
Samarium (lanthanum-hē)
Europium (lanthanum-hē)
Gadolinium (lanthanum-hē)
Terbium (lanthanum-hē)
Dysprosium (lanthanum-hē)
Holmium (lanthanum-hē)
Erbium (lanthanum-hē)
Thulium (lanthanum-hē)
Ytterbium (lanthanum-hē)
Lutetium (lanthanum-hē)
Hafnium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tantalum (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Wolfram (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Rhenium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Osmium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Iridium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Pe̍h-kim (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Kim (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Chúi-gîn (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Thallium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Iân (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Bismuth (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Polonium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Astatine (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Radon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Francium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Radium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Actinium (actinium-hē)
Thorium (actinium-hē)
Protactinium (actinium-hē)
Uranium (actinium-hē)
Neptunium (actinium-hē)
Plutonium (actinium-hē)
Americium (actinium-hē)
Curium (actinium-hē)
Berkelium (actinium-hē)
Californium (actinium-hē)
Einsteinium (actinium-hē)
Fermium (actinium-hē)
Mendelevium (actinium-hē)
Nobelium (actinium-hē)
Lawrencium (actinium-hē)
Rutherfordium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Dubnium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Seaborgium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Bohrium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Hassium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Meitnerium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Darmstadtium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Roentgenium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Copernicium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Ununtrium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Flerovium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Ununpentium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Livermorium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Ununseptium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Ununoctium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)


C

Si
phêng-sò͘Thoàⁿ-sò͘chit-sò͘
Goân-chú-hoan 6
Goân-chú-liōng 12.011[1] (12.0096–12.0116)[2]
Goân-sò͘ lūi-pia̍t to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k
sometimes considered a metalloid
Cho̍k, hun-khu 14·2·p
Chiu-kî tē 2 chiu-kî
Tiān-chú pâi-lia̍t [He] 2s2 2p2
per shell 2, 4
Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit
Siòng kò͘-thé
Sublimation point 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Bi̍t-tō͘  (sek-un) amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3[3]
graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Sam-siòng-tiám 4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[4][5]
Iûⁿ-hoà-jia̍t graphite: 117 kJ·mol−1
Jia̍t-iông-liōng graphite: 8.517 J·mol−1·K−1
diamond: 6.155 J·mol−1·K−1
Goân-chú sèng-chit
Sng-hòa-sò͘ +4, +3,[6] +2, +1,[7] 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[8] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Tiān-hū-tō͘ Pauling scale: 2.55
Tiān-lī-lêng 1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
(more)
Kiōng-kè pòaⁿ-kèng sp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals pòaⁿ-kèng 170 pm
Cha̍p-lio̍k
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō graphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: Thoàⁿ-sò͘

(black)
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō diamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for Thoàⁿ-sò͘
Siaⁿ-sok (sòe kùn-á) diamond: 18,350 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Jia̍t-phòng-tiòng diamond: 0.8 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)[9]
Jia̍t-thoân-tō-lu̍t graphite: 119–165 W·m−1·K−1
diamond: 900–2300 W·m−1·K−1
Tiān-chó͘-lu̍t graphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[10]
Chû-sèng diamagnetic[11]
Young hē-sò͘ diamond: 1050 GPa[9]
Shear hē-sò͘ diamond: 478 GPa[9]
Bulk hē-sò͘ diamond: 442 GPa[9]
Poisson pí diamond: 0.1[9]
Mohs ngē-tō͘ graphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS teng-kì pian-hō 7440-44-0
Le̍k-sú
Hoat-hiān Egyptians and Sumerians[12] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[13] (1789)
Chòe ún-tēng ê tông-ūi-sò͘
Chú bûn-chiong: Thoàⁿ-sò͘ ê tông-ūi-sò͘
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.156 14N

Thoàⁿ-sò͘ (炭素)[14]hoà-ha̍k hû-hō C, goân-chú-hoan 6, ê 1 chióng hoà-ha̍k goân-sò͘. Thoàⁿ-sò͘ sī 1 chióng hui-kim-sio̍k (nonmetal), ū 4 ê goân-chú-kè (valency) ê goân-sò͘, i ū chin chē tông-sò͘-thé (allotropy), pí-lūn kóng soān-chio̍h he̍k-chiá sī chio̍h-ba̍k.

Thoàⁿ-sò͘ mā sī cho͘-sêng iú-ki-bu̍t ê chú-iàu sêng-hun, sī kò͘-chō chhut tē-kiû téng seng-bu̍t ê ki-pún goân-sò͘.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Conventional Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  3. Lide, D. R., pian. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th pán.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  5. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  6. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). 2007-12-06 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  7. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). 2007-12-06 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  8. "Carbon: Binary compounds". 2007-12-06 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  10. https://www.nde-ed.org/GeneralResources/MaterialProperties/ET/ET_matlprop_Misc_Matls.htm
  11. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  12. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. 2008-09-12 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. 2007-11-24 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. 炭素, Tâi-Ji̍t Tōa Sû-tián