Chū-iû nńg-thé

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
Thiàu khì: Se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
GNU kè-oē ê chū-iû nńg-thé phiau-chiong.

Chū-iû nńg-thé sī bô hān-chè lâng khì ēng, gián-kiù, siu-kái ê nńg-thé; mā bô hān-chè lâng khì kho͘ iah sī hun-sàng kái--koè ia̍h bô kái--koè ê pán-pún; nā chún ū hān-chè, mā sī ūi-tio̍h khak-pó siu--tio̍h ê lâng ū chìn-chêng kóng--ê chiah-ê koân-lī. Beh ta̍t kàu chit ê bo̍k-tek, thêng-sek ê keh-sek mā ài hō͘ lâng tha̍k ū (goân-má). Goân-má it-poaⁿ ē kah 1 hūn nńg-thé siū-koân (soeh-bêng tù-chok-koân só͘-iú-jîn khai-hòng ê koân-lī, tī chia tō sī chū-iû nńg-thé siū-koân); lēng-goā ū-ê nńg-thé sī ti̍t-chiap khǹg khì kong-iú léng-he̍k (public domain), án-ne sú-iōng-chiá tō ē chū-tōng tit tio̍h chiah-ê koân-lī.

Chū-iû nńg-thé kap bián-hùi nńg-thé (freeware) bô sio-siâng. Bián-hùi nńg-thé sī ē-tàng bô-liāu súi-iōng ê su-iú nńg-thé (proprietary software), m̄-koh bē-taǹg kā gián-kiù, siu-kái iah hun-sàng.

Chū-iû nńg-thé kap khai-hòng goân-má nńg-thé (open-source software, OSS) beh oá beh oá, m̄-koh iáu sī ū koá cheng-chha. Chū-iû nńg-thé iū-koh hō chò "chū-iû khai-hòng goân-má nńg-thé" (free and open-source software, FOSS), "nńg-thé chū-iû" (software libre), iah sī "chū-iû chū-iû khai-hòng goân-má nńg-thé" (free, libre and open-source software, FLOSS).

Chū-iû nńg-thé ē-tàng chū-iû hun-sàng, it-poaⁿ beh the̍h--tio̍h ê sêng-pún lóng chin kē. Chū-iû nńg-thé ê êng-ūn bô͘-sek sù-siông sī khò thê-kiong ho̍k-bū, chhin-chhiūⁿ chi-oān, hùn-liān, kheh-chè-hoà, chéng-ha̍p, iah sī giām-chèng. Ah nā hui-chū-iû nńg-thé ê êng-ūn bô͘-sek tō chha khah chē, chhiūⁿ kóng sú-iōng-chiá tiāⁿ-tio̍h ài bé 1 hūn siū-koân chiah ē-tàng ha̍p-hoat lâi sú-iōng 1 thò nńg-thé.

Chū-iû nńg-thé ūn-tōng1983 nî khí-pōng, ǹg-bāng beh hō͘ tián-náu sú-iōng-chiá ū chiah-ê chū-iû. Ah nā bô thê-kiong chiah-ê chū-iû ê nńg-thé tō hō chò su-iú nńg-thé (proprietary software) iah sī hui-chū-iû nńg-thé (non-free software).

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái]

Tī 50 nî-tāi, 60 nî-tāi, 70 nî-tāi, chû-iû sú-iōng chū-iû nńg-thé sī chin pêng-siông ê tāi-chì. Bîn-chiòng kap ngī-thé chè-chō-siong kiōng-tông hun-hióng nńg-thé. Nńg-thé hō͘ bîn-chiòng ê tiān-náu hó ēng, chè-chō-siong mā hoaⁿ-hí chia ê nńg-thé hō͘ in ê sán-phín koh khah choē iōng-tô͘. 70 nî-tāi kàu 80 nî-tāi chho͘-kî, in-ūi nńg-thé ê ūn-iōng jú lâi jú ho̍k-tsa̍p, sán-gia̍p kài sú-iōng tù-chok-koân-hoat lâi pó-hō͘ in ê tâu-chu. Lēng-goā in iā khai-sí ēng ki-su̍t-sèng ê pō͘-sò͘ (chhin-chhiūⁿ kan-taⁿ kong-pò͘ jī-chìn-ūi pán, binary copies) hō͘ bîn-chiòng boē-tàng gián-kiù kap siu-kái nńg-thé.

Richard Stallman phah-piàⁿ kúi-nā nî siūⁿ beh kái-piàn tiān-náu kang-gia̍p kap sú-iōng-chiá ê bûn-hoà, chò kah chin iàn-khì, lō͘-boé tī 1983 nî hoat-khí GNU kè-e̍k. 1984 nî chiaⁿ--goe̍h GNU chok-gia̍p hē-thóng khí-pōng, 1985 nî 10--goe̍h FSF (Free Software Foundation, Chū-iû Nńg-thé Ki-kim-hoē) sêng-li̍p. Stallman chhàng-siat chū-iû nńg-thé ê tēng-gī chham "copyleft" ê koan-liām, beh hō͘ chèng-lâng chai-iáⁿ in sī siat-kè lâi khak-pó sú-iōng nńg-thé ê chū-iû.

Tēng-gī[siu-kái]

1986 nî 2 goe̍h FSF chè-tēng tē 1 ê chū-iû nńg-thé ê tēng-gī. Richard Stallman siá liáu kàu taⁿ iáu leh ēng, lāi-té iau-kiû kóng sú-iōng-chiá the̍h--tio̍h ê nńg-thé ài ū 4 chióng chū-iû chiah sī chū-iû nńg-thé:

  • Chū-iû 0: M̄-koán siáⁿ iōng-tô͘ lóng ē-tàng cháu thêng-sek ê chū-iû.
  • Chū-iû 1: Gián-kiù kap siu-kái thêng-sek ê chū-iû.
  • Chū-iû 2: Kho͘ thêng-sek ê chū-iû, thèng-hó hia̍p-chō͘ chhin-chiâⁿ-gō͘-cha̍p.
  • Chū-iû 3: Kái-chìn thêng-sek koh kā kong-khai ê chū-iû, án-ne ta̍k-ê lóng ū hó-khang.

Chū-iû 1 kap 3 iau-kiû goân-má ài kong-khai, bô--chiá, bô hoat-tō͘ gián-kiù iah siu-kái nńg-thé.

Goā-pō͘ Liân-kiat[siu-kái]