Chhùi-khí

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Chhùi-khí ê chióng-lūi

Jîn-lūi ū 2-thò chhùi-khí (Hàn-jī: 嘴齒, mā hō-chò gê-khí 牙齒, Eng-gí: tooth), 1-ê sī ni-khí (Hàn-jī: 乳齒, Eng-gí: deciduous tooth) koh 1-ê sī éng-kiú-khí (Hàn-jī: 永久齒, Eng-gí: permanent tooth).

Tāi-iok tī chhut-sì 6 kó·-go̍eh ê sî khai-sí hoat ni-khí, it-ti̍t kàu 3 hòe chìn-chêng ē chôan-pō· hoat oân. Tán kàu 6 hòe chó-iū, ni-khí khai-sí thoat-lo̍h, éng-kiú-khí mā khai-sí hoat. Kàu 12 hòe ni-khí chôan-pō la̍k liáu, éng-kiú-khí tī-le̍h 18 hòe chó-iū lâi hoat oân.

Chhùi-khí ê sò·-liōng kap miâ-chheng[siu-kái]

Ni-khí ū 20 khí, nā kā chhùi-khí hun-chò téng-ham, ē-ham kap tò-pêng, chiàⁿ-pêng 4-ê pō·-hūn, múi 1-ê pō·-hūn ū 5 khí.

Ùi-chêng-kàu-āu téng-ham ê ni-khí hun-pia̍t sī kiò chò:

Ùi-chêng-kàu-āu ē-ham ê ni-khí hun-pia̍t sī kiò chò:

Éng-kiú-khí ū 32 khí, ta̍k-ê pō·-hūn ū 8 khí.

Ùi-chêng-kàu-āu téng-ham ê éng-kiú-khí hun-pia̍t sī kiò chò:

Ùi-chêng-kàu-āu ē-ham ê éng-kiú-khí hun-pia̍t sī kiò chò:

Tē-3 éng-kiú tōa-āu-chan iū-koh kiò-chò tì-hūi-khí he̍k-sī tì-khí. sái-poe-khí kap kak-khí kap-chò-hóe kiò-chok thâu-chêng-khí (前牙, anterior teeth, labial teeth) , sió-āu-chan kap tōa-āu-chan tâng-chê kiò-chok aū-chan (後牙, posterior teeth, buccal teeth) he̍k āu-piah-khí.

Chhùi-khí ê hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí ê hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat (tooth notation) ē-tàng kán-hòa chhùi-khí ê miâ-chheng, hong-piān piáu-sī bó· 1-khí chhùi-khí. Pí-jû kóng "chiàⁿ-pêng téng-ham chiàⁿ mn̂g-khí" nā sú-iōng Set Square system lâi piáu-sī tio̍h-sī "1_|"; sú-iōng FDI tooth notation system tio̍h-sī "#11"; sú-iōng American tooth notation system tio̍h-sī "#8"; sú-iōng European tooth notation system tio̍h-sī "#1+".

Zsigmondy-Palmer, Chevron, or Set Square system[siu-kái]

Che sī Tâi-oân gê-i sú-iōng siāng phó·-phiàn ê hē-thóng, iû-kî sī chhiú-siá ê pēⁿ-le̍k.

Éng-kiú-khí

Set square system P.png

Ni-khí

Set square system D.png

FDI hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat[siu-kái]

Kok-chè Gê-i-ha̍k Liân-bêng ê hē-thóng (ISO 3950:1984) sī siāng phó·-phiàn ê piáu-sī-hoat. Sè-kài Oē-seng Cho·-chit chi-chhî chit thò. Che sī Tâi-oân tiān-náu hē-thóng – iû-kî sī Tâi-oân Tiong-iong Kiān-khong Pó-hiám-kio̍k ê tiān-náu hē-thóng – só· sú-iōng ê chhùi-khí hû-hō piau-sī-hoat hē-tóng.

Éng-kiú-khí

FDI tooth notation P.png

Ni-khí

FDI tooth notation D.png

Bí-kok hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat[siu-kái]

Che mā hō·-chò Universal Numbering System.

Éng-kiú-khí

American tooth notation P.png

Ni-khí

American tooth notation D.png

Au-chiu hû-hō piáu-sī-hoat[siu-kái]

Chit thò siāng chió lâng iōng.

Éng-kiú-khí

European tooth notation P.png

Ni-khí

European tooth notation D.png

Chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k[siu-kái]

Fig: Ni-khí ê hoat-gê sūn-sū

Chhùi-khí ê hoat-io̍k ùi the-jîseⁿ-kiáⁿ-tē tē-6 lé-pài tio̍h khai-sí, it-ti̍t kàu 25-hōe chó-iū tē-3 tō·-āu-chan ê khí-kha oân-choân hêng-sêng chiah kiat-sok. Ni-khí ê hoat-gê sūn-sū khah bô-tek-khak, m̄-koh it-poaⁿ sī iû-chêng-kàu-aū. Éng-kiú-khí ê hoat-gê sūn-sū ū khah tiāⁿ-tio̍h.

Fig: Éng-kiú-khí ê hoat-gê sūn-sū

Chhùi-khí ê hêng-thài[siu-kái]

Téng-ham tōa-āu-chan ê kā-ha̍p bīn

Lán chhùi phah--khui só· khòaⁿ tio̍h ê chhùi-khí, kî-si̍t kan-taⁿ sī chhùi-khí ê khí-koan (牙冠, dental crown), tī khí-hoāⁿ lāi-té iah-ū khí-kin (牙根, dental root), m̄-koh phó·-thong lóng kā kiò-chok "khí-thâu", ná chhan-chhiⁿ sī chhiū-á ê chhiū-thâu, m̄-sī ū 1-kù ōe án-ne kóng: "chhiū-thâu nā khiā hō· chāi, tio̍h m̄-kiaⁿ chhiū-bóe choh hong-thai". Liân-kiat khí-koan kap khí-kin ê pō·-ūi hō-choh khí-ām-pō· (齒頸部, dental cervical area).

Aū-chan ê khí-koan ū 5-ê piáu-bīn, hun-pia̍t sī (1) kā-ha̍p bīn (咬合面, occlusal surface), (2) kīn-sim bīn (近心面, mesial surface), (3) oán-sim bīn (遠心面, distal surface), (4) sia̍t-chhek bīn (舌側面, lingual surface), kap (5) gia̍p-chhek bīn (頰側面, buccal surface). Thâu-chêng-khí ê gê-koan kah aū-chan sio-siâng mā-ū 5-ê piáu-bīn, m̄-koh kā-ha̍p bīn kiò-chok chhiat-toan (切端, incisal edge), gia̍p-chhek bīn kiò-chok tûn-chhek bīn (唇側面, labial surface), kî-tha 3-ê bô-piàn.

Aū-chan ê kā-ha̍p bīn ū koân ū kē, koân--khí-lâi nā chhan-chhiūⁿ soaⁿ-lûn--ê kiò choh kā-lûn(咬崙, kā-thâu, 咬頭, cusp); lap--lo̍h-khì ná khe-kok--ê kiò chò kā-khut (咬窟,kā-o,咬窩, fossa) kap hoat-io̍k-kau (發育溝, developmental groove). Téng-ē-chô ê chhùi-khí ka-ha̍p (咬合)--khí-lâi ê sî-chūn, kā-lûn kap kā-khut siōng-tùi kā chò-hóe. Kā-khut siāng chhim ê só·-chāi kiò-chò sió-khut-á kap li̍h-phāng (小窟及裂縫, sió-o kap kau-lia̍t, 小窩及溝裂, pit and fissure). Sió-āu-chan it-poaⁿ ū 2-ê kā-lûn, gia̍p-chhek kap sia̍t-chhek kok 1-ê. Tōa-āu-chan pō·-pêng ū 4-ê he̍k 5-ê, chiâⁿ-hán-tit ū tē-6-ê; téng-ham tōa-āu-chan ū 4-ê, gia̍p-chhek kap go̍k-chhek kok 2-ê; ē-ham tōa-āu-chan ū 5-ê, gia̍p-chhek 3-ê, sia̍t-chhek 2-ê.

Chhùi-khí ê kái-phoà[siu-kái]

Fig: Chhùi-khí ê kò·-chō

Chhùi-khí ê khí-koan siāng gōa têng sī khí-iū-chit (牙釉質, enamel), tē-2 têng sī khí-pún-chit (牙本質, dentin), siāng lāi-té sī khí-chhóe-khiuⁿ (牙髓腔, pulp chamber). Khí-kin siāng gōa têng sī khí-kut-chit (牙骨質, cementum), tē-2 têng sī khí-pún-chit, siāng lāi-té sī kin-kńg (根管, root canal). Khí-chhóe-khiuⁿ kap kin-kńg lāi-té ū khí-chhóe (牙髓, dental pulp), i sī sîn-keng, hoeh-kńg kap kiat-tē-cho·-chit só· kò·-sêng. Chhùi-khí sī thàu-kòe khí-chiu-cho·-chit lâi kò·-tēng tī chhùi-lāi.

Chhùi-khí ê chi̍t-pēⁿ, tī-liâu kap ū-hông[siu-kái]

Chiù-khí, khí-chhóe-pēⁿ, khí-chiu-pēⁿ kap chhùi-khí sòng-sit sī chhùi-khí siāng chia̍p khoàⁿ--tio̍h ê chi̍t-pēⁿ, gê-i-ha̍k sī beh gián-kiù, tī-liâu kap ū-hông chhùi-khí í-ki̍p chhùi-khiuⁿ kap go̍k-gân-bīn (嘴腔佮顎顏面,oral and maxillofacial) ê chi̍t-pēⁿ. In-chhú nā-ū chhùi-khí ê būn-tê, tio̍h-ài chhōe gê-i-su lâi chhú-lí. Chhùi-khí chi̍t-pēⁿ ê ū-hông siāng tiōng-iàu--ê sī kò-jîn ê chhùi-khiuⁿ ōe-seng ê khang-khòe, pí-jû-kóng sú-iōng khí-bín-á sé-chhùi kap sú-iōng khí-sòaⁿ (齒線, dental floss), nā chòe-liáu ū hāu-lu̍t tio̍h ē-tàng ta̍t-kàu bo̍k-piau. Koh-lâi sī tēng-kî ê chhùi-khiuⁿ kiám-cha kap hu̍t-hòa-bu̍t ê si-ú téng-téng ū-hông chhò·-si.

Khí-lia̍t hoat-io̍k koh-iūⁿ, chhut-khí chiàng-gāi, kap hiō-thian pēⁿ-piàn[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí kiat-kò· ê koh-iūⁿ[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí hêng-chōng ê koh-iūⁿ (Anomalies of form)[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí sȯ̀-bok ê koh-iūⁿ (Abnormalities with number of teeth)[siu-kái]

Chhùi-khí tōa-sió ê koh-iūⁿ (Abnormalities with size of teeth)[siu-kái]

Chhut-khí ê chiàng-gāi[siu-kái]

  • Chhut-seng-khí (出生齒, natal tooth)
  • Bâi-ho̍k-khí (埋伏齒, impacted tooth)
  • Ī-ūi (異位, transposition): 2-khí chhùi-khí ê ūi-tì sio-oaⁿ ê ì-sù.

Hiō-thian-sèng ê pēⁿ-piàn[siu-kái]

Kî-thaⁿ[siu-kái]

  • Chhùi-khí ê liâm-liân (嘴齒 ê 粘連, dental ankylosis)