Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k

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Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍ktiat-ha̍k lāi-té 1-ê tiōng-iàu ê hun-ki. Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k só· gián-kiù--ê sī tē-it goân-lí / tē-it in-toaⁿ (Eng-gí: first principles, first cause) kap chûn-chāi (tī-leh; sím-mi̍h sī chûn-chāi, chûn-chāi ê sèng-chit téng-téng) ê būn-tê hām chú-tê.

Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k ê gí-goân[siu-kái]

Hàn-jī bûn-hòa-khoan ê gí-goân
Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k sī tùi Ji̍t-gí Hàn-jī-sû 形而上学 (keizizyôga) lâi--ê, Hoâ-gí mā-sī khip-siu chit-ê Ji̍t-gí-sû lâi ēng ( ū-tang-sî-á kán-séng chò 形上學 ). Siōng-khí-khiàn Ji̍t-pún ha̍k-chiá sī kin-kì E̍̍k-keng (易經) ê Hê-sû Siōng-toān (繫辭上傳), lāi-té ê " 形而上者謂之道,形而下者謂之器 " chit 2-kù oē chhòng chhut chit-ê sin-sû--lâi-ê.
Chi̍t-koá se-hong gí-giân ê gí-goân
Hi-lia̍p kó·-chá ê tiat-ha̍k-ka Aristotelēs ū siá chi̍t-koá chheh, lóng-chóng hō-chò φυσικά (physika, Eng-gí siá-chò Physics). Tī khah-chá ê pán-pún lāi-té, ū lēng-goā chi̍t-koá Aristotelēs ê tù-chok sī hō· lâng pian tī φυσικά āu-bīn--ê, hiah-ê chheh khoàⁿ--khí-lâi sī kap ki-pún, ki-chhó͘ ê tiat-ha̍k būn-tê ū tī-tāi--ê. Aristotelēs ka-tī kā hiah-ê tù-chok hō-chò "Tē-it tiat-ha̍k". Nā chá-kî ê Aristotelēs-phài ê ha̍k-chiá sī kui-khì kā hiah-ê chheh kiò-chò τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά βιβλια (ta meta ta physika biblia), ì-sù sī "toè tī physika aū-piah ê chheh", ū 1-ê kóng-hoat kóng che tō-sī Eng-gí metaphisics (Tek-gí: Metaphysik, Hoat-gí: Métaphysique, Se-pan-gâ-gí: Metafísica) ê gí-goân.
Nā chiàu gí-goân-ha̍k lâi khoàⁿ, metaphysics tō-sī poâⁿ-koè (meta) chū-jiân kho-ha̍k (physika), mā ū tùi-tâng.

Ki-pún siāu-kái[siu-kái]

Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k ū chi̍t-pō·-hūn sī teh " tùi su-khó lâi chò su-khó ", hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k 1-ê kài chú-iàu ê chú-tê tō-sī teh gián-kiù su-khó ê koè-têng: chhin-chhiūⁿ lán sī án-choáⁿ tì-kak--ê, lán sī án-choáⁿ lí-kái--ê, lán sī án-choáⁿ kau-thong--ê, lán sī án-choáⁿ chò su-khó--ê téng-téng.

Hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k ê chú-tê tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ chin thiu-siōng, lán mā thang kóng hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k koan-sim--ê, tō-sī " lán lâng án-choáⁿ chhú-lí chit-koá thiu-siōng ê tāi-chì ".

Phó͘-thong kóng--khí-lâi hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k siōng-tiōng-iàu ê būn-tê sī pún-thé-lūn ê būn-tê, gián-kiù chûn-chāi / tī-leh, si̍t-thé téng-téng ê tāi-chì.

Hiān-chhú-sî hêng-jî-siōng(-ha̍k) chit-ê sû chia̍p-chia̍p hō· it-poaⁿ lâng bōng-iōng, sù-siông thiaⁿ-tio̍h--ê tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ sī kap sîn-pì-chú-gī téng-téng ê tāi-chì khah ū koan-hē, tian-tò hām hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k kap pún-thé-lūn khah bô tī-tāi. Sui-jiân chit-khoán iōng-hoat hām tē-it goân-lí he̍k-sī chûn-chāi ê pún-chit bô koan-hē, m̄-koh it-poaⁿ chiah-ê iōng-hoat mā ē kap hêng-jî-siōng-ha̍k ê ká-tēng ū kan-sia̍p-tio̍h.