Eng-gí

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Chhim-nâ-sek sī Eng-gí iōng-chòe jîn-bîn bó-gí ê kok-ka. Chhián-nâ-sek sī iōng-chòe koaⁿ-hong gí-giân ia̍h-sī chú-iàu ê hêng-chènggí-giân ê kok-ka.

Eng-gí sī 1 chióng Se Tek-gí-hē ê gí-giân, i ê goân-thâu tī Eng-kok. Eng-gí ê bó-gí jîn-kháu chhiau-kòe 4-ek (2002 nî sò·-kì). Liân-ha̍p Ông-kok kap āu--lâi Bí-kokkun-sū, keng-chè, kho-ha̍k, chèng-tī, bûn-hòa ê éng-hióng tì-sú Eng-gí chiâⁿ-chò sè-kài chú-iàu ê thong-hêng-gí chi it.

Kán-sú[siu-kái]

Chham-khó: Eng-gí ê le̍k-sú

Kóng Tek-gí-hē gí-giân ê Angle, Saxon, Jute téng-téng ê pō·-lo̍k tī Se-goân 500 nî chó-iū khai-sí si̍t-bîn Britain-tó. In chi-phoè pún-té í-keng tī England tē-khu ê Celtic-gí cho̍k-kûn. In ê hong-giân sī Eng-gí ê sian-chó·, āu--lâi chheng-hō· sī Kó· Eng-gí (Old English). Kó· Eng-gí oan-nā siū Kó· Norse (Old Norse) chit ê Tek-gí-hē hong-giân éng-hióng. Hiān-tāi ê hun-lūi jīn-ûi Kó· Eng-gí î-chhî kàu 1100 nî, Norman-lâng chhim-lio̍k Britain-tó liáu-āu bô joā kú. Beowulf sī Kó· Eng-gí ê tāi-piáu-chok.

Norman-lâng toà--lâi ê Kó· Hoat-gí (Old French) chhim-chhim éng-hióng Tiong Eng-gí (Middle English), iok-lio̍k tùi 1100 nî (Norman-lâng tī 1066 nî khai-sí thóng-tī) kàu 1500 nî (ìn-soat-ki hoat-bêng liáu-āu). Tiong Eng-gí sî-kî lâu--lo̍h-lâi siōng ū miâ-siaⁿ ê tù-chok sī Geoffrey Chaucer ê The Canterbury Tales. Chit toāⁿ sî-kî Eng-gí keng-koè Ūn-bó Toā Soá-ūi (Eng-gí: Great Vowel Shift) ê im-ta̍t piàn-chhian, liáu-āu chiâⁿ-chò Hiān-tāi Eng-gí (Modern English).

Hiān-tāi Eng-gí tùi William Shakespeare ê sî-tāi khai-sí hoat-tián. I ê gí-hoat, hoat-im chēng hit-chūn kàu taⁿ goân-chek-siōng bô kái-piàn, ke̍k-ke sû-lūi ū toā cheng-ka niā-niā. Ū-ê ha̍k-chiá khu-pia̍t chá-kî kap āu-kî (1800 nî) ê Hiān-tāi Eng-gí. 1800 nî liáu-āu, Britain Tè-kok chiàm-niá sè-kài toā pō·-hūn, siâng-sî ia̍h siū hia ê gí-giân éng-hióng.

Hun-lūi[siu-kái]

Eng-gí sio̍k Ìn-tō·-Europa ka-cho̍k chi-hā ê Tek-gí-hē.

Eng-gí siōng chhin ê hiān-tāi chhin-chiâⁿ sī Scots kap Frysk. Koan-hē khah hn̄g--tām-po̍h-á ê gí-giân sī Kē Saxon-gí (tī Kē-tē-kok tang-pêng kap Tek-kok pak-pō·). Kî-thaⁿ ū koan-hē ê gí-giân ū Kē-tē-kok-gí, Afrikaans, Tek-gí, Pak Europa ê gí-giân. In-ūi Eng-gí tùi Norman-lâng ê Hoat-gí khip-siu chē-chē sû-lūi, bat Eng-gí ê lâng mā ē-tit liáu-kái chin chē Hoat-gí ê sû; phèng-im, ì-sù mā sio-oá he̍k-chiá kāng-khoán.

Siaⁿ-im[siu-kái]

Ūn-bó[siu-kái]

Siaⁿ-bó ê IPA pió
IPA SAMPA
[i(:)] [i(:)] bead
[ɪ] [I] bid
[e(ɪ)] [e(I)] bayed
[ɛ] [E] bed
[æ] [{] bad
[ɒ] [Q] bod 1
[ɔ(:)] [O(:)] pawed 2
[o(ʊ)] [o(U)] bode
[ʊ] [U] good
[u(:)] [u(:)] booed
[ʌ] [V] bud
[ɝ(:)] [3(`)(:)] bird 3
[aɪ] [aI] buy
[aʊ] [aU] bough
[ɔɪ] [OI] boy
[ə] [@] Rosa's 4
[ɨ] [1] roses 5

Siaⁿ-bó[siu-kái]

  siang-tûn tûn-khí khí-kan chih-chiam palato-alveolar palatal chih-kin âu
sat-im p [p] b [b]     t [t] d [d]     k [k] g [g]  
phīⁿ-im m [m]     n [n]     ŋ [N] 1  
flap       ɾ [4] 2        
chhat-im   f [f] v [v] θ [T] ð [D] 3 s [s] z [z] ʃ [S] ʒ [Z]   x [x] 4 h [h]
sat-chhat-im         tʃ [tS] dʒ [dZ]      
approximant ʍ [W] 5 w [w]     ɹ [r\]   j [j]    
lateral approximant       l [l]        

Siong-koan ê bûn-chiuⁿ[siu-kái]

Gōa-pō· liân-kiat[siu-kái]

Wikipedia
Wikipedia ū Eng-gí ê pán-pún.