Canada

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Canada / Kha-ná-tah
Canada
Canada / Kha-ná-tahê kok-kî Canada / Kha-ná-tah ê kok-hui
A Mari usque ad Mare (Latin-bûn)
"Tùi hái kàu hái"
Canada / Kha-ná-tahê só͘-chāi
Siú-to͘ Ottawa

Canada, ha̍k-chiá Kanata; ia̍h sī Ka-ná-tāi, Kha-ná-tah, le̍k-sú-siōng hō chò Dominion of Canada/Le Dominion du Canada, sī tī Pak Bí-chiu siāng pak-pêng ê kok-ka. Canada miâ-gī-siōng sī 1 ê ū hiàn-hoat ê ông-kok, cho·-chit-siōng kiâⁿ liân-pang chè-tō·, ū 10 séng, 3 léng-thó·.

Ki-pún chu-liāu[siu-kái]

Kok miâ[siu-kái]

"Canada" chit-ê miâ sī tùi tōng-tē goân-chū-bîn Haudenosaunee-lâng ê chi̍t-ê pō͘-cho̍k só͘ kóng ê "kanata" só͘ hō,[1] goân-lâi ì-sù sī "chhoan-chng", sī goân-chū-bîn ēng-lâi hiòng thàm-hiám-chiá Jacques Cartier chí bêng Stadacona chit-ê chhoan ê só͘-chāi-tē só͘ ēng.[2]

Āu-lâi, Cartier tio̍h ēng "canada" chit-ê jī lâi chheng Stadacona siú-niá Donnacona só͘ koán ê thó͘-tē. Tī 1545 nî, Au-chiu ê chheh kap tē-tô͘ khai-sí ēng "Canada" lâi piáu-sī chit-ê só͘-chāi.

Kàu 17 sè-kí kap 18 sè-kí chá-kî, "Canada" sī kóng Sin Hoat-lân-se, ia̍h tio̍h sī Sèng Lawrence Hô liû-he̍k kap Toā-ô͘ ê pak hoāⁿ tē-khu. Āu-boé chia-ê thó͘-tē piàn chò Eng-kok ê si̍t-bîn-tē, hun Téng Canada (Upper Canada) kap Hā Canada (Lower Canada), 1841 nî koh ha̍p-pēng chò Canada Séng (Province of Canada).

1867 nî Canada ê hoān-ûi.

1867 nî cho͘-sêng pâng-liân ê sî-chūn, "Canada" hong ēng-lâi chò sin kok-ka ê chèng-sek miâ-chheng, lēng-goā koh koàn siōng "Dominion", chiâⁿ chò choân-miâ "Dominion of Canada". Āu-lâi Canada chèng-hú tit tio̍h chū-tī ê sin-hūn, ta̍uh-ta̍uh tio̍h bô chài ēng "Dominion", kaⁿ-taⁿ chheng "Canada".

Hàn-bûn kap Ji̍t-pún ê Hàn-jī, hun-piat kā "Canada" hoan chò "加拿大" chham "加奈陀". Hiān-sî Bân-lâm-gí ū chiàu "加拿大" kóng Ka-ná-tāi. Nā tī Tâi-oân, mā tiāⁿ kóng "Kha-ná-tah" ia̍h sī "Ka-ná-tah".

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái]

Goân-chū-bîn tī Canada í-keng toà ū 10,000 goā-tang. Tī kong-goân 1000-nî chó-iū ê sî-chūn, Viking-lâng ū toà tī hiān-chú-sî Newfoundland pak-hái-hoāⁿ ê L'Anse aux Meadows chi̍t-chām--á. He sī Europa-lâng thâu-chi̍t-pái lâi kàu Canada. Hoat-kok-lâng tī 16 kap 17 sè-kí ê sî-chūn khai-sí poaⁿ-lâi khiā-khí tī Pak-bí-chiu tang-pak-pō·, sī Europa-lâng tī Canada tn̂g-kî tēng-ki ê khí-thâu.

Eng-kok, Hoat-kok kap Se-pan-gâ tī 1763-nî chhiam-tēng Paris Tiâu-iok, kā Chhit-nî Chiàn-cheng siu-soah. Tī chit-ê tiâu-iok lāi-té, Hoat-kok tap-èng hòng-khì i tī Pak-bí-chiu tāi-lio̍k ê si̍t-bîn-tē, kā Canada niū hō· Eng-kok.

Bí-kok Kek-bēng liáu-āu, si̍t-bîn-tē chi̍t-koá iû-goân hāu-tiong Eng-kok ê lâng chiūⁿ-pak poaⁿ lâi kàuCanada.

Tī 1867-nî, Canada Séng (āu--lâi hun-chò Ontario kap Québec), Nova Scotia kap New Brunswick chit saⁿ-ê si̍t-bîn-tē ha̍p-pèng, kiàn-li̍p Dominion of Canada. Edward Ông-chú Tó kap Newfoundland hit-tang-chūn bô siūⁿ-beh kap choah-ê si̍t-bîn-tē ha̍p-chò-hóe, hun-pia̍t kàu 1873-nî kap 1949-nî chiah ka-ji̍p Canada.

Eng-kok tī 1931-nî thong-kòe Westminister Hoat-kui, chèng-sek hō· Canada piàn-chò to̍k-li̍p ê kok-ka, ē-tàng ka-kī chè-tēng hoat-lu̍t. Canada tī 1982-nî kā hiàn-hoat ùi Eng-kok soá tò-lâi chhù (patriation of the Constitution), chū-án-ne Canada siu-kái hiàn-hoat m̄-bián koh su-iàu Eng-kok ê tông-ì.

Gí-giân[siu-kái]

Canada ê nn̄g-ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân sī Eng-gí kap Hoat-gí.

Tī 1969-nî, Canada kok-hōe thong-kòe gī-àn, chèng-sek kui-tēng Eng-gí kap Hoat-gí tī liân-pang chèng-hú kap kok-hōe--ni̍h sī pêng-téng ê gí-giân. Che sī Canada tē-it-ê Koaⁿ-hong gí-giân hoat-àn (Official Languages Act / Loi sur les langues officielles). I chú-iàu ê bo̍k-tek sī Eng-gí kap Hoat-gí siā-khu ê pó-chûn kap hoat-tián, í-ki̍p hō· chit-nn̄g-ê gí-giân tī Canada siā-hōe ē-tàng pîⁿ-chē-khiā.

Canada chèng-hú tī 1982-nî chèng-sek soan-kò Hiàn-hoat hoat-àn (Constitution Act / Loi constitutionnelle), kî-tiong ê Canada Koân-lī kap chū-iû hiàn-chiong (Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms / Charte canadienne des droits et libertés) chìn-chi̍t-pō· hō· liân-pang ki-kò· lāi-bīn nn̄g-ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân ê tē-ūi kap sú-iōng tit-tio̍h hiàn-hoat ê pó-chèng. Koân-lī kap chū-iû hiàn-chiong kui-tēng:

  • Eng-gí kap Hoat-gí sī Canada ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân;
  • Tī kok-hōe hōe-gī--ni̍h, ta̍k-ke ū koân-lī ēng jīm-hô chi̍t-ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân;
  • Só·-ū kok-hōe ê kì-lo̍k kap thong-kòe ê hoat-àn su-iàu ū Eng-gí kap Hoat-gí ê pán-pún, jî-chhiáⁿ nn̄g-chióng lóng sǹg sī koaⁿ-hong chèng-khak ê pán-pún;
  • Kap kok-hōe siat-li̍p ê hoat-īⁿ chhú-lí tāi-chì ê sî-chūn, ēng Eng-gí ia̍h-sī Hoat-gí lóng ē-sái--tit.
  • Ta̍k-ke ū koân-lī ēng jīm-hô chi̍t-ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân tit-tio̍h liân-pang chèng-hú ê ho̍k-bū.

Chit-má New Brunswick sī Canada î-it chèng-sek siang-gí ê séng. Hoat-gí sī Québec ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân; kî-thaⁿ poeh-ê séng ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân lóng sī Eng-gí.

Tî-liáu Eng-gí kap Hoat-gí, kî-thaⁿ gí-gían tī Canada mā chin tiōng-iàu. Kun-kì 2001-nî ê jîn-kháu tiau-cha, 17% Canada-lâng ê bú-gí m̄-sī koaⁿ-hong gí-giân. Kî-tiong jîn-kháu thōng chē ê sī Italia-gí (1.6%), Tek-gí (1.5%), Kńg-tang-ōe (1.1%) kap Punjab-gí (0.9%).

Canada mā ū chiâⁿ chē goân-chū-bîn gí-giân, m̄-koh toā-pō·-hūn ē-hiáu kóng ê lâng jú-lâi jú-chió. Kun-kì kāng chi̍t-ê tiau-cha, bú-gí jîn-kháu khah chē ê goân-chū-bîn gí-giân ū Cree (72,680 lâng, Canada jîn-kháu ê 0.25%), Inuktitut (29,005 lâng, 0.10%), kap Ojibway (20,890 lâng, 0.07%).

Hêng-chèng-khu[siu-kái]

Chhiáⁿ chham-khó: Canada ê séng kap léng-thó·

Ca-map.png

Chham-khó[siu-kái]

  1. Origin of the Name, Canada. Canadian Heritage (Government of Canada) (2008). Tī 2010-06-27 khoàⁿ--ê.
  2. Maura, Juan Francisco (2009). "Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI". Bulletin of Spanish Studies 86 (5): 577–603. Routledge. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345. 

Gōa-pō· liân-kiat[siu-kái]


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