Marcel Duchamp

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Marcel Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp (Kok-chè Im-phiau: [maʀsɛl dyʃɑ̃]) (1887 nî 7 goe̍h 281968 nî 10 goe̍h 2) sī 1 ê Hoat-kok gē-su̍t-ka (āu—lâi tī 1955 nî pìⁿ Bí-kok-chek). I ê chok-phín kap lí-liām tùi Tē-jī-chhù Sè-kài Tāi-chiàn liáu-āu ê Se-iûⁿ bí-su̍t-kài ū chin toā ê éng-hióng. Lâng tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ kā i kap Dada, Chhiau-hiān-si̍t-chú-gī ê ūn-tōng khan chò-hoé, chóng—sī i tī Chhiau-hiān-si̍t-phài ê kak-sek chú-iàu sī kha-chhiah-āu—ê.

Ū chiok chē lâng siá chheh, bûn-chiuⁿ gī-lūn Duchamps ê chok-phín kap i ê su-sióng ê ì-gī. Tùi i lâi kóng, hit-koá kái-soeh oân-ná sī chhòng-chok; in hoán-èng kái-soeh ê lâng. I keng-koè i ê chok-phín thàm-thó gē-sut ê koè-thêng kap hêng-siau. Chhiūⁿ kóng i kā 1 chō jiō-chō (urinal) hō chò gē-su̍t, hō-miâ "Choâⁿ-thâu" (Fountain). Āu—lâi sīm-chì pàng-sak bí-su̍t, choan-tô͘ kiâⁿ se-iûⁿ-kî. I ê chok-phín bô chē; tong-sî ê avant-garde tiâu-liû lóng ū chhap—tio̍h.

Seng-gâi[siu-kái]

I pún-miâ Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp, chhut-sì tī Hoat-kok Haute-Normandie tē-tāi ê Seine-Maritime ê chng-thâu, hō chò Blainville-Crevon. Ka-têng tiōng-sī bûn-hoà oa̍h-tōng, tī chhù-lāi sù-siông saⁿ-kap kiâⁿ-kî, tha̍k chheh, oē-tô͘, chàu im-ga̍k. Chhù—ni̍h ū koà chē-chē goā-kong Emile Nicolle ê koè-oē kap khek-pán chok-phín.

Chheng-siàu-liân sî, khai-sí o̍h oē-tô͘, thâu-khí-seng sī o̍h Ìn-siōng-chú-gī ê hong-keh.

1927 nî 6 goe̍h 8, kap Lydie Sarazin-Lavassor kiat-liân-lí, 6 goe̍h-ji̍t tō lî-iân. 1954 nî kap Alexina "Teeny" Sattler kiat-hūn, it-ti̍t kàu Duchamps pia̍t-sè. 1955 nî i chiâⁿ chò Bí-kok kong-bîn.

Chok-phín kap bí-ha̍k su-sióng[siu-kái]

Chò-piān-mi̍h[siu-kái]

Duchamps khai-hoat chò-piān-mi̍h (readymades) chún gē-su̍t-phín ê su-sióng. I kéng koá thong-sio̍k, chè-chō piān ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ, ū-sî ē sió kái—koè, án-ne kā hō chò gē-su̍t. Tī chit ê koè-têng, kéng 1 hāng mi̍h-kiāⁿ, hō 1 ê miâ, chhiam 1 ê jī, hit ê thong-sio̍k mi̍h tō pìⁿ-chiâⁿ gē-su̍t-phín. Duchamps tùi sûn sī-kak gē-su̍t bô chhù-bī, keng-thé kóng he sī "sī-bāng-moh gē-su̍t" (retinal art). Ūi beh cháu-chhoē pa̍t chióng piáu-hiān ê hoat-tō͘, i tī 1915 nî khai-sí siat-kè chò-piān-mi̍h. Hit-tang-chūn "chò-piān-mi̍h" sī iōng lâi khu-pia̍t kang-tiûⁿ chè-chō—ê kap thoân-thóng chhiú-kang chò ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ. I kéng piān-mi̍h te̍k-pia̍t kéng hit-koá "sī-kak-te̍k bô-bī-bô-sò͘"--ê (visual indifference). I ê soán-tek hoán-èng chhut i kāu-khoe-hâi, gâu sau-that, hèng kiâⁿ ài-māi ê hong-keh. I bat kóng: "...chū-pún to khài-liām iu-sian, m̄ sī sī-kak ê lē...sī 1 chióng teh hò͘ⁿ-tēng chiōng gē-su̍t lâi tēng-gī ê khó-lêng-sèng" [bô chhut-chhù].

Duchamp hān-chè chò-piān-mi̍h ê sán-gia̍h, kui-sì-lâng ke̍k-ke chiah 20 kiāⁿ nā-niā. I kám-kak án-ne lâi hān-chè, i chiah ū hoat-tō͘ pī-bián poa̍h lo̍h-khì phín-bī (taste) ê hām-khut. I liáu-kái oân-nā siám-pī phín-bī oân-nā kéng mi̍h-kiāⁿ, chit 2 hāng chi-kan ū mâu-tún. Phín-bī, "hó"--ê ia̍h "bái"--ê, i kám-kak lóng sī gē-su̍t ê sí-te̍k.

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