Su-pó͘-chuh

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Su-pó͘-chuh (ji̍t. スポーツ; bí. sports; eng. sport), tiāⁿ kóng thé-io̍kūn-tōng, sī ū it-tēng kui-chek jî-chhiá hun su-iâⁿ ia̍h sǹg sêng-chek ê ūn-tōng oa̍h-tāng. Tû-liáu sin-thé ūn-tōng í-gōa, ū-sî chi̍t kóa bô sáⁿ tín-tāng ê châi-le̍k, pí-lūn kóng kiâⁿ-kî; he̍k-chiá sī chú-iàu óa-khò kî-hâi tōng-le̍k, tōng-bu̍t-la̍t teh si̍t-hêng--ê, pí-lūn chū-tōng-chhia kēng-cháu, la̍h-káu kēng-cháu téng khoán, mā hông sǹg chò su-pó͘-chuh hāng-bo̍k lâi keng-êng.

Iōng-gí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Eng-gí ê sport chit jī, gí-goân sī Kó͘ Hoat-gí desport, ì-sù sī "chheng-êng"; Tī 1300 nî chó-iū Eng-gí ê chi̍t khoán kó͘-sek ì-sù, thang chí "kok khoán hō͘ lâng kám-kak sim-sek iā gû-lo̍k ê tāi-chì".[1]

Eng-gí ê kî-tha ì-sù koh pau-koat poa̍h-kiáu kap pān poa̍h-kiáu ê oa̍h-tāng; phah-la̍h; iû-hì kap chē chióng gû-lo̍k, hâm su-iàu sin-thé ūn-tōng ê chióng-lūi.[2]

Tī chá-kî ê Ē-mn̂g-ōe sû-tián, sport ū "thit-thô" téng chē chióng hoan-e̍k.[3]

Tēng-gī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Su-pó͘-chuh ū chē-chē ì-sù. Nā chiàu SportAccord (chi̍t-ê ūi só͘-ū tōa-hêng su-pó͘-chuh liân-bêng só͘ siat ê cho͘-ha̍p cho͘-chit) thê-kiong ê tùi sport ê chi̍t khoán tēng-gī, su-pó͘-chuh èng-tong ài ū í-hā ê sèng-chit:[4]

  • Ū keng-cheng ê sêng-hun;
  • Tùi kok chióng oa̍h-mi̍h bô siong-hài-sèng;
  • Bô óa-khò tan-to̍k kong-kip-chiá thê-kiong siat-pī (tû-liáu pún-sin sī só͘-iú-chiá to̍k-chiàm--ê pí-lūn arena football);
  • Bô óa-khò jîn-hô choan-bûn siat-kè tī oa̍h-tāng lâi ê "hó-ūn" sêng-hun.

SportAccord mā chiap-siū su-pó͘-chuh ē-tàng sī chú-iàu khò thé-le̍k--ê (chhiūⁿ la-gú-bih), chú-iàu khò sim-le̍k (chhiū kiâⁿ-kî), tōa-hūn khò tōng-le̍k--ê (chhiūⁿ Formula 1), chú-iàu khò hia̍p-tiâu--ê (co-ordination, chhiūⁿ tōng-kiû), iā su-iàu tong-bu̍t chi-chhî--ê (chhiūⁿ bé-su̍t).[4]

Chóng-sī sim-le̍k hong-bīn ê oa̍h-tāng iáu bô chin siū kong-jīn chiap-siū chò su-pó͘-chuh chi̍t hūn-chú, te̍k-pia̍t sī chi̍t kóa khoân-le̍k tan-ūi tī hoat-lu̍t siōng bô kā in tòng chò su-pó͘-chuh.[5]

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Goân-sú kap kó͘-tāi ê su-pó͘-chuh tiāⁿ sī koan-hē tio̍h chong-kàu-sèng ê gî-sek--ê. Pí-lūn Maya lâng kap Aztec lâng ê kiû-lūi oa̍h-tāng sī tī biō-sī lāi sîn-sèng ê só͘-chāi kí-hêng, koh phòe-ha̍p hi-seng oa̍h-lâng ê oa̍h-tāng. Jicarilla Apache ēng chiap-le̍k pí-sài lâi khèng-chiok chhun-thiⁿ ê tó-tńg kap thó͘-tē ê seng-sán-le̍k. Koh ū chhiūⁿ Kó͘ Hi-lia̍p ēng lio̍k-siōng ūn-tōng lâi êng-iāu sîn-bêng.[6]

Ai-ki̍p ê Tutankhamen bōng-tē, pat hoat-kiàn phah-la̍h, siā-chìⁿ, kap siong-koan ê ōe-tô͘, piáu-hiān kok-ông ēng chiàn-chhia phah-la̍h ê oa̍h-tāng. Chi̍t khoán m̄ sī ūi keng-chè su-iàu, sī ūi gû-lo̍k iā chèng-tī piáu-tat só͘ si̍t-hêng ê kok-ông chē chiàn-chhia siā-chìⁿ phah-la̍h oa̍h-tāng ōe-tô͘, tī kó͘-tāi Mesopotamia mā chûn-chāi, pí-lūn tāi-iok Ch. 9–7 sè-kí tùi Ashurnasirpal ê kì-su̍t mā chûn-chāi.[7]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Su-chì[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  • David Levinson & Karen Christensen, pian. (1999). Encyclopedia of World Sport. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513195-9. 
    • Guttmann, Allen (1999). Modernization. 
    • Renson, Roland (1999). Archery. 

Chù-kha[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Harper, Douglas. "sport (n.)". Online Etymological Dictionary. 20 April 2008 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Springfield, MA: G&C Merriam Company. 1967. p. 2206. 
  3. John Macgowan (1883). "sport". English and Chinese dictionary of the Amoy dialect. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Definition of sport". SportAccord. goân-loē-iông tī 28 October 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. 
  5. "Judicial review of 'sport' or 'game' decision begins". BBC News. 2015-09-22. 
  6. Guttmann 1999
  7. Renson 1999