Ingenuity ti̍t-seng-ki

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Ingenuity ti̍t-sing-ki
(Ki-tì-hō ti̍t-sing-ki)
Mars 2020 ê tsi̍t pōo-hūn
PIA23882-MarsHelicopterIngenuity-20200429 (trsp).png
Ingenuity ti̍t-sing-ki ê tsén-íng
Līng-tshing
Luī-hîng BHK ti̍t-seng-ki
Tsè-tsō-tsiá PTS
Ki-su̍t tsu-guân
Tshùn-tshioh
  • Ki-sin: 13.6 cm × 19.5 cm × 16.3 cm (5.4 in × 7.7 in × 6.4 in)[1]
  • Tsiūñ-lio̍k kha-kè: 0.384 m (1 ft 3.1 in)[1]
Ti̍t-kìng Suan-i̍k: 1.2 m (4 ft)[1][2][3]
Kuân-tōo 0.49 m (1 ft 7 in)[1]
Ting-lio̍k tsit-liōng
Kong-lu̍t 350-[1][4]
Hui-hîng li̍k-sú
Huat-siā li̍t-kî 2020-nî 7-gue̍h 30-li̍t, 11:50:00 UTC
Huat-siā tē-tiám Cape Canaveral, SLC-41
Tsiūñ-lio̍k li̍t-kî 2021-nî 2-gue̍h 18-li̍t, 20:55 UTC
Tsiūñ-lio̍k
 tē-tiám
18°26′41″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4447°N 77.4508°E / 18.4447; 77.4508,
Jezero lòng-kik-khen
Ke-si
Mars Helicopter JPL insignia.svg
PTS hué-tsheñ ti̍t-sing-ki ê hui-tsiong

Ingenuity ti̍t-sing-ki (guā-hō: Ginny; Ki-tì-hō ti̍t-sing-ki, Sió tsing-lîng; poj: Ki-tì-hō ti̍t-seng-ki, Sió cheng-lêng; eng-gí: Ingenuity (helicopter), Ginny[5][6]) sī tsi̍t tsiah hué-tsheñ bô-lîn ti̍t-sing-ki.[7][8] Kè-uē teh Mars 2020 ê līm-bū lāi-té iōng-lai tsìn-hîng huih-in ki-su̍t giām-tsìng; i ē-sái thê-kiong bo̍k-tsiân kuí-tō uī-tsheñ ia̍h-sī tē-bīn thàm-tshik-tshia kah ting-lio̍k-khì bô-huat-tōo thê-kiong ê ti̍k-pia̍t kak-tōo. Uî thàm-tshik-khì hi̍k lîn-luī thê-kiong ko tshing-sik-tōo tôo-siōng kah tsing-tshat, pīng sú-iōng thàm-tshik-tshia ē-sái tsìn-ji̍p pháiñ kiâñ-kàu ê tē-hîng.[9]

Ingenuity tit-beh tio̍h-lio̍k liáu-āu 60 tsì 90-kang uì Perseverance ê pak- [en] hun-lî.[10] Kah Petseverance hun-lî liáu-āu tit-beh tsìn-hîng uî-kî 30-kang ê hui-hîng tshik-tshì. Hui-hîng kuan-tōo lī tē-bīn 3 tsì 5-bí, hui-hîng kī-lī ē-sái kàu 300-bí (980 ing-tshioh); ta̍k-pái bē tshiau-kuè 3 hun-tsing, siōng-ke hui-hîng 5 pèn.[11] Ingenuity ti̍t-sing-ki ē-sái teh hui-hîng tiong tsìn-hîng tsū-tsú khòng-tsè, ta̍k-piàn kàng-lo̍h liáu-āu, i-e̊ ti̍t-tsiap kah Perseverance thong-sìn. Tse tō beh-sī lîn-luī siú-tshù si̍t-hiān hui-hîng-khì teh kî-thañ sing-kiû ê siū-khòng hui-hîng.[12]

Nā-sī Ingenuity siú-pue sîng-kong, tō beh teh 30-ê hué-tsheñ li̍t (liōng-kî-iok-á 31-ê tē-kiû li̍t) ê thang-á-kháu kî lāi tsip-hîng āu-suà 4-pèn tshì-pue līm-bū. Līm-bū thuân-tuī teh-beh thong-kuè Ingenuity giām-tsìng teh hué-tsheñ tuā-khuì-tsân hui-hîng sóo su-iàu ê ki-su̍t; uī tiû-pī bī-lâi ke-khì-lîn ia̍h-sī lîn-luī thàm-soh hué-tsheñ ê sî-tsūn tsah-ê sian-tsìn hui-hîng-khì phah ki-tshóo. Tsia-ê ti̍t-sing-ki tō ē-sái teh bī-lâi ê thàm-tshik līm-bū tiong tam-līm hú-tso̊o ê kak-sik; pí-lû: Tsò-uî ke-khì-lîn tsing-tshâ-guân, uì tíng-kuân khàm-tshik tē-hîng ia̍h-sī tsò-uî to̍k-li̍p khoh-ak hui-hîng-khì lai-tsah gî-khì (measuring instrument).[13]

Siat-kè[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Ginny ê tsoo-sîng guân-kiāñ tôo
Ginny ê hui-hîng ti̍k-sìng
Rotor speed 2400 rpm[1][3]
Blade tip speed <0.7 Mach[8]
Operational time 1 to 5 flights within 30 sols[1][4]
Flight time Up to 90 seconds per flight[1]
Maximum range, flight 50 m (160 ft)[1]
Maximum range, radio 1,000 m (3,300 ft)[13]
Maximum planned altitude 5 m (16 ft)[1]
Maximum speed
  • Horizontal: 10 m/s (33 ft/s)[14]
  • Vertical: 3 m/s (9.8 ft/s)[14]
Battery capacity 35–40 Wh (130–140 kJ)[15]

Huih-ing tshing-tuañ[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Hō-má Li̍t-kî
(UTC)
Tī-khong sî-kan
(bió)
Hui-hîng ko-tōo
(bí/ing-tshioh)
Ket-kó
2021-nî 4-gue̍h 19 teh 07:30
39.1
3 m (9.8 ft) (tāi-iok)
Sîng-kong
NET 2021-nî 4-gue̍h 23
TKK
TKK
Kè-uē
3
NET 2021-nî 4-gue̍h 26
TKK
TKK
Kè-uē
4
NET 2021-nî 4-gue̍h 29
TKK
TKK
Kè-uē
5
NET 2021-nî 5-gue̍h 02
TKK
TKK
Kè-uē

TKK: Tsiah-koh kuat-tīng

Tôo-phìñ[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Sing-pîn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Mars helicopter Ingenuity, heard flying on Mars on its fourth flight

Iáñ-phìñ[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Ti̍t-tsiap tiám-kik sok-tôo [en] tō ē-tàng kā tôo-siōng hòng-tuā.

Pōo-sūs ūn-sī[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

March 29, 2021: after Ingenuity was extended vertically into place after being rotated outward from its horizontal position on the belly of the rover, Perseverance takes photos for the panorama, catching in its field of view the debris shield which protected Ingenuity during landing and was dropped on March 21, 2021
Ingenuity helicopter: out from under the Perseverance rover
Before releasing Ingenuity the rover had to get rid of the pan which protected the feasible RIMFAX equipment during the landing stage
Debris shield released and dropped
Ingenuity swings down, with two of its four legs extended
Ingenuity with all legs extended
Pre-flight testing
Before tests
Rotor blades are unlocked for tests and flying
The slow-speed (50 rpm) spin up test on sol 48
The high-speed (2400 rpm) spin up test on sol 55

Hui-hîng tē-tôo[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

The flight zone of the technical demonstration and transitional stage
Wright Brothers Field and the overlook location
View of the field from the rover
Second helipad[lower-alpha 1]
Flights' paths of the operational demonstration stage and HiRise images of Ingenuity
Flight profile for Ingenuity's Flight 15
Topography between Mars helicopter and rover for Flight 17
Positioning before the 2021 solar conjunction
R210 is the rover position on sol 210;
HPang-bô͘:Sup sub, HPang-bô͘:Sup sub and HPang-bô͘:Sup sub means 1st, 2nd and 3rd landing sites of Ingenuity on the Field H on sols 163, 174 and 193 respectively
Ingenuity captured by Hirise camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter at Airfield M on Feb. 26, 2022

Perseverance ê tôo-siōng[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Flights 1–4 viewed by the Perseverance rover
Flight 2 (22 April 2021)
Flight 3 (25 April 2021)
Flight 4 (30 April 2021)
Flights 5–8 viewed by the Perseverance rover
Flight 5 (7 May 2021)
Landed after flight 5 at Airfield B (7 May 2021)
One day after sixth flight (Sol 92)
Four days after 7th flight (Sol 111)
Seven days after 8th flight (Sol 127)

Images by Ingenuity[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

First Images[lower-alpha 2]
The first color image (April 4, 2021)[lower-alpha 3]
In-flight image (19 April 2021, altitude 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in))
Landing after the first flight (19 April 2021)
First color aerial photo (22 April 2021, altitude 5.2 m (17 ft), flight 2)
Flights 3-9
Flight 3, rover is seen left-up from the 5.0 m (16.4 ft) height
Heading towards Airfield B (flight 4, 30 April 2021)
Flight 6, view from 10 m (33 ft) towards Séítah
Flight 9, flying over the Séítah (July 5, 2021)
Perseverance rover (left) viewed about 85 m (279 ft) away from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) height (April 25, 2021)
Flights 10–13
Flight 10 over ridges
Flight 12 over Séítah
Flight 13 rover view
After conjunction: preflight tests and flights 14-16
Flight 16 (21 November 2021)
Post-flight 16 rover view
Entry-descent-landing debris
Ingenuity photographed the spacecraft backshell and parachute (April 19) and other apparent EDL debris (April 3).[20]
Crater Ridgeline
Flight 27 − Fortun Ridge
(23 April 2022)

Animations[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Miscellaneous animations
Landing after fifth flight at Airfield B (7 May 2021)
Flight 9, animation from the flight images
Flight 11 rover
Flight 11 ten slides

Perseverance ê tsū-phai[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Mars 2020 in Jezero crater on Mars containing Ingenuity helicopter — self-portraits
Ingenuity helicopter drop site, Wright Brothers Field
(April 2021)
  1. HiRISE's view of Ingenuitys fourth flight path paving the way for it to move to second airfield on its fifth flight
  2. All images taken by Ingenuity are from either its black-and-white downward-facing navigation camera[18] or from horizon-facing color camera;[19] landing legs are seen at the side edges of images
  3. Perseverance Rover wheels are clearly seen in top corners

Miscellaneous Ingenuity-related images[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Aircraft certification of Ingenuity to fly on Mars
"Nominal Pilot's Logbook for Planets and Moons"
Ingenuity logbook entries for flights 9 and 10
Ingenuitys first flight altimeter data showing the flight period
(19 April 2021)
Ingenuitys second flight test data[lower-alpha 1]
(22 April 2021)
Mars Helicopter JPL insignia

Huat-tén[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Perseverance hué-tsheñ-tshia (Mars rover) kàng-lo̍h tē-tiám ê tsuân-kíng-tôo (panorama).

Tsù-sik[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. This is an animated gif containing sequence of images on second test flight. First image shows Ingenuitys rotor power during flight two. Second image shows Ingenuitys horizontal position relative to start during flight one hover. Third image shows Ingenuitys collective control during flight one. Fourth image shows Ingenuitys lower cyclic control on flight one. Similar cyclic controls applied on the upper rotor. Fifth image shows Ingenuitys estimate of vertical velocity during flight two.

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Landing Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. January 2021. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 18 February 2021 hőng khó͘-pih. 14 February 2021 khòaⁿ--ê.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. Clarke, Stephen (14 May 2018). "Helicopter to accompany NASA's next Mars rover to Red Planet". Spaceflight Now. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Mars Helicopter Fact Sheet" (PDF). NASA. February 2020. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 22 March 2020 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 May 2020 khòaⁿ--ê.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: 無效的<ref>標籤;name屬性“fact sheet”使用不同內容定義了多次
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Mars Helicopter". mars.nasa.gov. NASA. goân-loē-iông tī 16 April 2020 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 May 2020 khòaⁿ--ê.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. "NASA"毅力"号核动力火星车发射成功,还携带了一架直升机!_科技_腾讯网". tech.qq.com. 2020-08-11 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. sina_mobile (2020-07-30). "NASA"毅力"号核动力火星车发射升空,还带了一架直升机". tech.sina.cn. 2020-08-11 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  7. Hautaluoma, Grey; Johnson, Alana; Agle, D.C. (2020-04-29). "Alabama High School Student Names NASA's Mars Helicopter". NASA. goân-loē-iông tī 2020-04-30 hőng khó͘-pih. 2020-04-29 khòaⁿ--ê.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Mars Helicopter Scout. video presentation at Caltech This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. Leone, Dan (2015-11-19). "Elachi Touts Helicopter Scout for Mars Sample-Caching Rover". 2015-11-20 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. Agle, DC; Hautaluoma, Gray; Johnson, Alana (2020-06-23). "How NASA's Mars Helicopter Will Reach the Red Planet's Surface". NASA. 2020-06-23 khòaⁿ--ê.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. Mars Helicopter Technology Demonstrator Archived 2019-04-01 at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF) J. (Bob) Balaram, Timothy Canham, Courtney Duncan, Matt Golombek, Håvard Fjær Grip, Wayne Johnson, Justin Maki, Amelia Quon, Ryan Stern, and David Zhu. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), SciTech Forum Conference; January 8–12, 2018, Kissimmee, Florida. doi:10.2514/6.2018-0023 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. "First Flight on Another Planet! - YouTube". www.youtube.com. 2020-08-05 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Mars Helicopter Technology Demonstrator Archived 1 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine. J. (Bob) Balaram, Timothy Canham, Courtney Duncan, Matt Golombek, Håvard Fjær Grip, Wayne Johnson, Justin Maki, Amelia Quon, Ryan Stern, and David Zhu. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), SciTech Forum Conference; 8–12 January 2018, Kissimmee, Florida doi:10.2514/6.2018-0023 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Witold 2018
  15. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī veritasium20190810
  16. "NASA to Attempt First Controlled Flight on Mars As Soon As Monday". 
  17. "Mars helicopter's first flight could happen on Monday". CNN. Ingenuity could fly four days after the first flight, then three days after the second flight and so on. 
  18. "Raw Images From Ingenuity Helicopter". NASA. 30 April 2021. 10 May 2021 khòaⁿ--ê.  (NAV images)
  19. "Raw Images From Ingenuity Helicopter". NASA. 30 April 2021. 10 May 2021 khòaⁿ--ê.  (RTE images)
  20. Chang, Kenneth (27 April 2022). "NASA Sees 'Otherworldly' Wreckage on Mars With Ingenuity Helicopter - The debris was part of the equipment that helped the Perseverance mission safely land on the red planet in 2021". The New York Times. 28 April 2022 khòaⁿ--ê. 

Tsham-khó bûn-hèn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • et al. (8-12 janvier 2018) « Mars Helicopter Technology Demonstrator [archive] » (pdf) dans 2018 AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference : 18 p.. — Caractéristiques techniques détaillées, description des études et des tests effectués. (Eng-gí)
  • NASA, Ingenuity Mars Helicopter landing press kit, NASA[1], janvier 2021, 33 p. — Dossier de presse de la NASA sur l'hélicoptère Ingenuity. (Eng-gí)
  • Andrew J. Ball, James R.C. Garry, Ralph D. Lorenz et Viktor V. Kerzhanovichl, Planetary Landers and entry Probes, Cambridge University Press, 2007 (ISBN 978-0-521-12958-9) (Eng-gí)
  • Withrow-Maser Shannah, Koning, Witold, Kuang, Winnie, Johnson, Wayne R et al., « Recent Efforts Enabling Martian Rotorcraft Missions [2], Papier de conférence,‎ janvier 2020, p. 1-10)( Feasibility study of a second generation Martian helicopter (1st generation Ingenuity)

Tsham-ua̽t[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Guā-pōo lên-ket[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

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