Alkane

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Chit phiⁿ bûn-chiuⁿ m̄-sī teh kóng Alkene, Alkyne, or Alkaline.

Alkane sī chi̍t-ê chióng-lūi ê Iú-ki hoà-ha̍p-bu̍t ê chóng-chheng, mā hō-chòe Paraffin. Alkane sī páu-hôhydrocarbon, in hun-chú lāi-té-ê só͘-ū carbon (C) kah hydrogen (H) gôan-chú chi-kan ê hòa-ha̍k-kiān lóng-sī tan-kiān.[1] Alkane ê hòa-ha̍k-sek siá-chòe CnH2n+2. Alkane ê chú-iàu lâi-gôan sī chio̍h-iû kah thian-jiân-khì.[2] Ta̍k-ê carbon gôan-chú ū 4-ê hoà-ha̍k-kiān (C-H ia̍h-sī C-C kiān), só͘-ū-ê hydrogen gôan-chú lóng kah chi̍t-ê carbon gôan-chú kiat-ha̍p (H-C kiān). Kiat-kò͘ siōng kán-tan-ê alkane sī methane (CH4). Tī alkane ka-cho̍k lāi-té, carbon ê sò͘-liōng pēng-bô hān-chè. Alkane ê hóan-èng-sèng bô kóng chin kiông. Só͘-ū-ê alkane lóng bô-sek bô-bī.

Kiat-kò͘ hun-lūi[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Páu-hô-ê hydrocarbon khó-lêng sī:

  • Ti̍t-sòaⁿ (hoà-ha̍k-sek CnH2n+2)
  • Hun-chi (hoà-ha̍k-sek CnH2n+2, n > 3)
  • Khôan-chōng (hoà-ha̍k-sek CnH2n, n > 2)

Ī-sèng-thé[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

C4 alkane bô-kâng-ê ī-sèng-thé.

Nā-sī carbon ê sò͘-liōng chhiau-kòe 3, alkane tō ū kò͘-chō ī-sèng-thé ê chûn-chāi. Chi̍t-ê alkane siōng kán-tan-ê ī-sèng-thé sī ti̍t-sòaⁿ bô hun-chi ê hit-ê, chit-khóan ī-sèng-thé hō-chòe "n-alkane" ("n" tāi-piáu eng-bûn ê "normal", "it-poaⁿ" ê ì-sù). Carbon ê sò͘-liōng nā jú chōe, ī-sèng-thé ê sò͘-liōng mā cheng-ka jú kín.

Hun-chi-ê alkane iáu-ū khó-lêng ū chhiú-sèng.

Hō-miâ hong-sek[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ti̍t-sòaⁿ alkane[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Hun-chi alkane[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Piáu-keh[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Alkane
Hoà-ha̍k-sek
Hut-tiám [°C]
Iûⁿ-tiám [°C]
Bi̍t-tō͘ [g·cm−3](20°C)
Bô͘-hêng-tô
Methane
CH4
−162
−182
khì-thé
Methane-3D-space-filling.svg
Ethane
C2H6
−89
−183
khì-thé
Kalottenmodell Ethan.png
Propane
C3H8
−42
−188
khì-thé
Kalottenmodell Propan.png
Butane
C4H10
0
−138
khì-thé
Kalottenmodell Butan.png
Pentane
C5H12
36
−130
0.626 (e̍k-thé)
Pentane.png
Hexane
C6H14
69
−95
0.659 (e̍k-thé)
Kalottenmodell Hexan.png
Heptane
C7H16
98
−91
0.684 (e̍k-thé)
Kalottenmodell Heptan.png
Octane
C8H18
126
−57
0.703 (e̍k-thé)
Kalottenmodell Oktan.png
Nonane
C9H20
151
−54
0.718 (e̍k-thé)
Kalottenmodell Nonan.png
Decane
C10H22
174
−30
0.730 (e̍k-thé)
Dekan.png
Undecane
C11H24
196
−26
0.740 (e̍k-thé)
Dodecane
C12H26
216
−10
0.749 (e̍k-thé)
Hexadecane
C16H34
287
18
0.773 (e̍k-thé)
Icosane
C20H42
343
37
kò͘-thé
Triacontane
C30H62
450
66
kò͘-thé
Tetracontane
C40H82
525
82
kò͘-thé
Pentacontane
C50H102
575
91
kò͘-thé
Hexacontane
C60H122
625
100
kò͘-thé

Hut-tiám[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

C1 ~ C16 ê alkane ê hut-tiám (kam-á-sek) kah iûⁿ-tiám (lâm-sek).

Alkane hun-chú chi-kan lóng ū van der Waals le̍k ê chò-iōng; chit-khóan chò-iōng nā-sī jú kiông, alkane ê hut-tiám tō jú kôaiⁿ.[3] Phòaⁿ-tòan van der Waals le̍k ê kiông-jio̍k, ū nn̄g-chióng hong-sek:

piau-chún chōng-hóng hā, CH4 kàu C4H10khì-thé, C5H12 kàu C17H36e̍k-thé, C18H38 chi-āu tō lóng-sī kò͘-thé. In-ūi hun-chú ê tāng-liōng sī éng-hióng alkane hut-tiám tōa-sè ê chú-iàu in-sò͘, in-chhú alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám hām hun-chú-liōng ê tōa-sè ū sòaⁿ-sèng koan-hē. Iû piⁿ-á ê chhu-sè-tô͘ ē-sái khòaⁿ-chhut: múi cheng-ka chi̍t-ê carbon, alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám tō ē cheng-ka 20 kàu 30°C.[3]

Ti̍t-liān alkane ê hut-tiám lóng pí ū hun-chi ê kôaiⁿ, in-ūi hun-chi ē kiám-chió hun-chú chi-kan ê chiap-chhiok piáu-bīn-chek, khì éng-hióng-tio̍h alkane hun-chú chi-kan ê van der Waals le̍k. Pí-lūn-kóng, pí-kàu n-butane kah isobutane (2-methylpropane), in-ê hut-tiám hun-pia̍t sī 0°C kah -12°C.[3]

Iûⁿ-tiám[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Alkane ê iûⁿ-tiám chham in-ê hut-tiám ū kâng-khóan-ê kiâⁿ-hiòng, gôan-in mā kah téng-bīn kóng-tio̍h-ê kâng-khóan. Tī pa̍t-hāng gōa-chāi tiâu-kiāⁿ lóng sio-kâng ê chōng-hóng chi-hā, hun-chú khah tōa, iûⁿ-tiám chū-jiân chiū ē khah tōa. Put-kò, iûⁿ-tiám chham hut-tiám ê kiâⁿ-hiòng ū chi̍t-ê bô-kâng-ê só͘-chāi. Ùi bīn-téng-ê kiâⁿ-hiòng-tô͘ (lâm-sek ê sòaⁿ), ē-sái hoat-hiān khia-sò͘ alkane ê iûⁿ-tiám kiâⁿ-hiòng pí siang-sò͘-ê khah kē tām-po̍h-á; che sī in-ūi siang-sò͘ alkane ê kiat-kò͘ pí khia-sò͘-ê khah ún-kò͘, só͘-í chiū su-iàu khah kôaiⁿ-ê lêng-liōng (un-tō͘) lâi tùi kò͘-thé chiâⁿ-chòe e̍k-thé.[4]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "Alkane - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". merriam-webster.com. 3 October 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. Arora, A. (2006). Hydrocarbons (Alkanes, Alkenes And Alkynes). Discovery Publishing House Pvt. Limited. ISBN 9788183561426. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 R. T. Morrison, R. N. Boyd (1992). Organic Chemistry (6th pán.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-643669-2. 
  4. Boese R, Weiss HC, Blaser D (1999). "The melting point alternation in the short-chain n-alkanes: Single-crystal X-ray analyses of propane at 30 K and of n-butane to n-nonane at 90 K". Angew Chemie Int Ed 38: 988–992. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19990401)38:7<988::AID-ANIE988>3.3.CO;2-S. 

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