Kiōng-tông-thé

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Kiōng-tông-thé (Eng-gí: community "kom-mú-ni-tih"), chiàu tiûⁿ-ha̍p ia̍h ū siā-lí, siā-khu, siā-kûn téng kóng-hoat, sī tōa-sió put-téng ê siā-hōe tan-goân, iā tiō sī lâng ê kûn-thé, chia-ê lâng ū chi̍t kóa kong-ke ê sèng-chit, pí-lūn kui-hoān, chong-kàu, kè-ta̍t, he̍k-chiá jīn-tông (identity). Kiōng-tông-thé it-poaⁿ sī kiàn-li̍p tī it-tēng hoān-ûi ê té-lí khu-he̍k, chhiūⁿ kok-ka, chng-siā, chhī-tīn, ia̍h lîn-lí; mā thang keng-kòe thong-sìn, tī hi-gí ê khong-kan sán-seng.

Khài-liām[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Gemeinschaft kap Gesellschaft[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tek-kok siā-hōe-ha̍k-chiá Ferdinand Tönnies kì-su̍t jîn-kan cho͘-chit ê nn̄g khoán hêng-sek: Gemeinschaft (Eng-gí it-poaⁿ hoan-e̍k chò "community" [kiōng-tông-thé"]) kap Gesellschaft (Eng-gí hoan-e̍k "society" [siā-hōe] ia̍h "association" [cho͘-ha̍p]). Tönnies thê-chhut Gemeinschaft–Gesellschaft jī-hun lâi su-khó siā-hōe liân-tòa (social ties). Bô kûn-thé thang oân-choân sio̍k kî-tiong chi̍t khoán. Gemeinschaft sī khah tiōng kò-jîn chi kan ê siā-hōe sio-chok-iōng (social interaction), kap kak-sek (role), kè-ta̍t, koh ū chia sio-chok-iōng chò ki-chhó͘ ê sìn-gióng. Gesellschaft khah tiōng hui ti̍t-chiap ê sio-chok-iōng, hui kò-jîn ê kak-sek, chèng-sek ê kè-ta̍t, kap chia sio-chok-iōng chò ki-chhó͘ ê sìn-gióng.[1]

Hêng-sek[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ū chē khoán lí-lō͘ lâi kā kiōng-tông-thé hun-lūi, pau-koat:

  • Chē-chí ki-chhó͘ ê kiōng-tông-thé (Location-based Communities): hâm tē-hng lîn-lí, chhī-gōa, chng-siā, ke-chhī, siâⁿ-chhī, tē-he̍k, bîn-cho̍k (nation) sīm-chì sī kui lia̍p he̍k-chheⁿ. Chia khoán hō chò só͘-chāi ê kiōng-tông-thé (communities of place).
  • Jīn-tông ki-chhó͘ ê kiōng-tông-thé (Identity-based Communities): hâm tē-hng hiong-tóng (clique), chhù-bûn-hòa, cho̍k-kûn (ethnic group), chong-kàu, to-bûn-hòa ia̍h to-goân-lūn bûn-bêng, he̍k-chiá sī choân-kiû-hòa kiōng-tông-thé bûn-hòa téng khoán. In thang koh ka-ji̍p khiàm-ēng ê kiōng-tông-thé (communities of need) ia̍h jīn-tông (identity), pí-lūn chiòng-gāi-chiá ia̍h lāu-hòe-lâng.
  • Cho͘-chit ki-chhó͘ ê kiōng-tông-thé (Organizationally based Communities): hâm tùi ka-cho̍k ê hui-chèng-sek cho͘-chit ia̍h siā-hōe bāng-lō͘ chò ki-chhó͘ ê kong-hōe kap cho͘-ha̍p, koh ū chèng-sek ê kong-si cho͘-ha̍p, chèng-tī koat-tēng kò͘-chō, keng-chè khì-gia̍p, ia̍h choan-gia̍p cho͘-ha̍p, ū sió-hêng, kok-ka, ia̍h ū kok-chè-sèng--ê.

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Tönnies, Ferdinand (1887). Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues's Verlag. An English translation of the 8th edition 1935 by Charles P. Loomis appeared in 1940 as Fundamental Concepts of Sociology (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft), New York: American Book Co.; in 1955 as Community and Association (Gemeinschaft und gesellschaft[sic]), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; and in 1957 as Community and Society, East Lansing: Michigan State U.P. Loomis includes as an Introduction, representing Tönnies' "most recent thinking", his 1931 article "Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft" in Handwörterbuch der Soziologie (Stuttgart, Enke V.).