Ki-pún lia̍p-chú

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lia̍p-chú bu̍t-lí-ha̍k tiong, ki-pún lia̍p-chú sī siōng ki-pún ê tan-ūi, in m̄ sī kî-thaⁿ ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ só͘ cho͘-sêng--ê. Ki-pún lia̍p-chú bo̍k-chêng tī phiau-chún bô͘-hêng ê kheng-khak chi hā, ū pau-koat ki-pún fermion kap ki-pún boson nn̄g lūi. Ki-pún lia̍p-chú kap-chò-hóe ē-sái hêng-sêng hok-ha̍p lia̍p-chú, phì-lūn-kóng ióng-chú, tiong-chú.

Hun-lūi[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Fermion[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Siông-sè: Fermion

Fermion ê spinpòaⁿ-chéng-sò͘, in ho̍k-chiông Fermi–Dirac thóng-kè. Ki-pún fermion ū nn̄g lūi: quark kap lepton.

Quark[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Ū 6 chióng quark kap in tùi-èng ê antiquark. Quark koh ē-sái hun chòe saⁿ ê sè-tāi.

Quark ê sèng-chit[1]
Sè-tāi Miâ Kì-hō Chit-liōng (MeV/c2) J B Q (e) I3 C S T B′ Hoán-lia̍p-chú Hoán-lia̍p-chú ê kì-hō
Tē 1

sè-tāi

up u 1.7 - 3.1 12 +​13 +​23 +​12 0 0 0 0 antiup
down d 4.1 - 5.7 12 +​13 −​13 −​12 0 0 0 0 antidown
Tē 2

sè-tāi

charm c 1290+50
−110
12 +​13 +​23 0 +1 0 0 0 anticharm
strange s 100+30
−20
12 +​13 −​13 0 0 −1 0 0 antistrange
Tē 3

sè-tāi

top t 172000±2200 12 +​13 +​23 0 0 0 +1 0 antitop
bottom b 4190+180
−60
12 +​13 −​13 0 0 0 0 −1 antibottom

Lepton[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Ū 6 chióng lepton kap in tùi-èng ê antilepton. Kî-tiong 3 chióng sī chah-tiān ê tiān-chú, muon, kap tauon, lēng-gōa 3 chióng sī neutrino. Lepton mā ē-sái hun chòe saⁿ ê sè-tāi.

Lepton ê sèng-chit[2]
Sè-tāi Miâ Kì-hō Q (e) S Le Lμ Lτ Chit-liōng (MeV/c2) pêng-kun sìⁿ-miā (s) Hoán-lia̍p-chú Hoán-lia̍p-chú ê kì-hō
Chah-tiān lepton
Tē 1 sè-tāi tiān-chú e −1 12 +1 0 0 0.5109989461(31) ún-tēng iông-tiān-chú e+
Tē 2 sè-tāi muon μ −1 12 0 +1 0 105.6583745(24) 2.1969811(22)×10−6 antimuon μ
Tē 3 sè-tāi tauon τ −1 12 0 0 +1 1776.86(12) 290.3(0.5)×10−15 antitauon τ
Neutrino
Tē 1 sè-tāi tiān-chú neutrino νe 0 12 +1 0 0 < 0.0000022 m̄-chai tiān-chú antineutrino νe
Tē 2 sè-tāi mu neutrino νμ 0 12 0 +1 0 < 0.17 m̄-chai mu antineutrino νμ
Tē 3 sè-tāi tau neutrino ντ 0 12 0 0 +1 < 15.5 m̄-chai tau antineutrino ντ

Boson[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Siông-sè: Boson

Boson sī ū chéng-sò͘ spin, ho̍k-chiông Bose–Einstein thóng-kè ê lia̍p-chú.

Gauge boson[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Gauge boson ū 4 chióng, in hun-pia̍t sī 4 chióng ki-pún-la̍t ê môe-kài, saⁿ-chok-iōng ê kòe-têng ê-seng-tit ēng gauge lí-lūn lâi biâu-su̍t. Kî-tiong graviton sī lí-lūn ká-siat ê lia̍p-chú, ah-bōe hō͘ si̍t-giām chèng-si̍t.

Gauge boson Sò͘-liōng Saⁿ-chok-iōng Lia̍p-chú gauge group
gluon 8 kiông-la̍t quark SU(3)
W+, W kap Z0 Boson 3 jio̍k-la̍t quark, lepton SU(2)
kng-chù 1 tiān-chû-la̍t quark, chah-tiān lepton U(1)
graviton ? tiōng-le̍k ? ?

Higgs boson[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Higgs boson sī chi̍t chióng ū chit-liōng ê boson. Kap Higgs boson ū koan-hē ê Higgs ki-chè, ē-sái kái-soeh ki-pún lia̍p-chú án-chóaⁿ tit-tio̍h chit-liōng.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group) (2010). "Review of Particle Physics: Quarks" (PDF). Journal of Physics G. 37: 075021. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/37/7A/075021. 
  2. P.A. Zyla et al. (Particle Data Group), Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2020, 083C01 (2020)