Kushan Tè-kok

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Kushan Empire
Κοϸανο
Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν
कुषाण वंश
30 nî–375 nî
A map of India in the 2nd century AD showing the extent of the Kushan Empire (in green) during the reign of Kanishka. Most historians consider the empire to have variously extended as far east as the middle Ganges plain,[1] to Varanasi on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna,[2][3] or probably even Pataliputra.[4][5]
A map of India in the 2nd century AD showing the extent of the Kushan Empire (in green) during the reign of Kanishka. Most historians consider the empire to have variously extended as far east as the middle Ganges plain,[1] to Varanasi on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna,[2][3] or probably even Pataliputra.[4][5]
Siú-to͘ Peshawar (Puruṣapura)
Taxila (Takṣaśilā)
Mathura (Mathurā)
Thong-iōng gí-giân Greek (official until c. 127)[note 1]
Bactrian[note 1] (official from c. 127)[note 2]
Gandhari Prakrit[8]
Hybrid Sanskrit[8]
Chong-kàu
Hinduism[9]
Buddhism[10]
Zoroastrianism[11]
Jîn-bîn hō-miâ Kushanas (Yuezhi)
Chèng-hú Monarchy
Emperor  
• 30–80
Kujula Kadphises
• 350–375
Kipunada
Le̍k-sú sî-kî Classical Antiquity
• Kujula Kadphises unites Yuezhi tribes into a confederation
30 nî
• Subjugated by the Sasanians, Guptas, and Hepthalites[12]
375 nî
Bīn-chek
200 (low-end estimate of peak area)[13] 2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi)
200 (high-end estimate of peak area)[14] 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
Hoè-pè Kushan drachma
í-chêng kok-ka
í-āu kok-ka
Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Parthian Kingdom
Indo-Scythians
Northern Satraps
Western Satraps
Maha-meghavahanas
Sasanian Empire
Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
Gupta Empire
Kidarites
Nagas of Padmavati
Nagas of Vindhyatabi
Ū Kùi-song ông Heraios lâng-thâu ê gîn-kak-á.

Kushan Tè-kok1 sè-kí ê sî-chūn tùi Tiong-a chit-ê Go̍at-chi (月氏) pō͘-cho̍k hoat-tián chhut-lâi ê kok-ka, pat khok-tiong kàu Ìn-tō͘ chhù-tāi-lio̍k ê pak-pō͘. In khah heng-ōng ê nî-tāi tāi-io̍k sī 105 nî kàu 250 nî.

Notes[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The Kushans at first retained the Greek language for administrative purposes but soon began to use Bactrian. The Bactrian Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 and deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan king Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discarded Greek (Ionian) as the language of administration and adopted Bactrian ("Arya language").[6]
  2. The Pali word vaṃśa (dynasty) affixed to Gushana (Kushana), i.e. Gushana-vaṃśa (Kushan dynasty) appears on a dedicatory inscription at Manikiala stupa.[7]

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Romila Thapar (2004). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. University of California Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-520-24225-8. 
  2. Burton Stein (2010). A History of India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1. 
  3. Peter Robb (2011). A History of India. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-230-34549-2. [biân-uán bô-hāu liân-kiat]
  4. Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2016). A History of India. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-24212-3. 
  5. Di Castro, Angelo Andrea; Hope, Colin A. (2005). "The Barbarisation of Bactria". Cultural Interaction in Afghanistan c 300 BCE to 300 CE. Melbourne: Monash University Press. pp. 1-18, map visible online page 2 of Hestia, a Tabula Iliaca and Poseidon's trident. ISBN 978-1876924393. 
  6. Falk 2001, p. 133.
  7. Rosenfield 1967, pp. 7 & 8.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Wurm, Stephen A.; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T. (11 February 2011). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Vol I: Maps. Vol II: Texts (ēng Eng-gí). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-081972-4. 
  9. Bopearachchi 2007, p. 45.
  10. Liu 2010, p. 61.
  11. Golden 1992, p. 56.
  12. "Afghanistan: Central Asian and Sassanian Rule, ca. 150 B.C.-700 A.D." Library of Congress Country Studies. 1997. goân-loē-iông tī 15 February 2013 hőng khó͘-pih. 16 August 2012 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. 12 September 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 132. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.