Ìn-siōng-phài

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Claude Monet, Ìn-siōng, ji̍t-chhut, 1872 nî, Musée Marmottan bí-su̍t-koán siu-chông.

Ìn-siōng-phài (Hoat-gí: Impressionnisme), he̍k-chiá kóng Ìn-siōng-chú-gī, sī 19 sè-kí tùi Hoat-kok ê Pa-lí khai-sí hoat-tián ê gē-su̍t ūn-tōng, khí-seng ê sêng-goân sī chi̍t koá hui-chú-liû gē-su̍t-ka. Claude Monet ê chok-phín Ìn-siōng, ji̍t-chhut (Impression, soleil levant) sī "ìn-siōng-phài" chit-ê miâ ê gôan-khí.

Āu--lâi sī-kak gē-su̍t ê ūn-tōng tī Se-hng gē-su̍t im-ga̍k lāi-bīn chō-chiâⁿ ìn-siōng-phài im-ga̍k ê hoat-tián.

Ìn-siōng-phài mā sī hiān-tāi-chú-gī gē-su̍t ê khí-thâu.

Pōe-kéng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ìn-siōng-phài ê goân-thâu chûn-chāi tī chi̍t kóa bô-kâng ê gē-su̍t su-sióng kap ūn-tōng tang-tiong. Tāi-seng sī sī-kak gē-su̍t lāi-bīn ê chū-jiân-chú-gī thoân-thóng, kî-tiong ōe-ka ê khang-khòe hong jīn-ûi sī ài si̍t-chāi piáu-ta̍t hiān-si̍t. M̄-koh, chit khoán thoân-thóng só͘ ín-khí ê gē-su̍t chhòng-chok, sī phòe-ha̍p kong-chiòng he̍k-chiá sī úi-thok-chiá tùi siá-si̍t ê iau-kiû. Tī Ìn-siōng-phài, gē-su̍t-ka pún-sin ê koan-tiám siū tio̍h kiông-tiāu. Che khó-lēng sī Lōng-bān-chú-gī (Romanticism) ê éng-hióng. Nā chiàu Lōng-bān-chú-gī ê khoàⁿ-hoat, lâng kò-thé thoân-ta̍t liáu i tī siā-hōe tiong ê sin-hūn, jî-chhiá gē-su̍t-ka siū kó͘-lē pó-chhî kap it-poaⁿ lâng bô-kâng ê koan-tiám. Lēng-gōa, in koh jīn-ûi chū-jiân m̄-sī siū lâng ê an-pâi. Só͘-í, ē-tàng kóng chū-jiân-chú-gī thê-kiong liáu siá-si̍t ê thoân-thóng; Lōng-bān-chú-gī thê-kiong liáu piáu-ta̍t ōe-ka pún-sin koan-tiám ê lí-sióng[1].

Tû-liáu í-siōng nn̄g khoán lâi-goân, Gustave Courbet kap Barbizon-phài koh ū chi̍t khoán khòaⁿ-hoat, in thê-chhut in hit-tong-sî kek-bēng-chiá ê lí-sióng, kám-kak nā sī it-poaⁿ lâng (phì-jû chò-si̍t-lâng) mā ē-tàng sī ōe-chok ê chú-tê, tio̍h àm-sī kóng chia-ê lâng mā ē-tàng chham-ú chèng-tī. Chiàu chit khoán siūⁿ-hoat, gē-su̍t-ka piáu-ta̍t hiān-si̍t ê khang-khòe m̄ ná sī chi̍t khoán kang-gē, mā sī ū siā-hōe kap tì-sek ì-gī ê tāi-chì. Chóng-sī chèng-tī chú-tiuⁿ m̄-sī pún ōe-phài chú-iàu ê chok-iōng, in si̍t-chè siōng sī tī ōe-bīn ê khì-hun kap kng-sòaⁿ téng hong-bīn tùi Ìn-siōng-phài sán-seng éng-hióng[2]. Courbet sī siá-sit-chú-gī ê tāi-piáu jîn-bu̍t, i jīn-ûi gē-su̍t-ka tio̍h ài piáu-hiān "chin-chiàⁿ chûn-chāi ê mi̍h," him-sióng í-chá Caravaggio, Frans Hals, kap Rembrandt ê hong-keh[3].

Khí-thâu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1840 nî chhut-sì, Normandie chhut-sin ê Claude Monet, sī khai Ìn-siōng-phài hong-khì ê ōe-ka. I siū Eugène Boudin ê kiàn-gī tī 1859 nî kòe Pa-lí hoat-tián, ùi su-jîn ha̍k-hāu Académie Suisse gián-kiú hong-kéng kap chhiah-sin tô͘-ōe. Monet tī 1860 nî hong chio-peng kòe Algeria, i āu-lâi jīn-ûi ka-tī sī tī Hui-chiu o̍h tio̍h kng-sòaⁿ kap sek-tī ê ìn-siōng. Monet chò-peng ê sî phòa-pēⁿ tó-tńg tī Le Havre ê pún-hiong, tú tio̍h Hô-lân ōe-ka Johan Barthold Jongkind. Chiàu Monet só͘ kóng, Jongkind khé-sī liáu tùi hái-kéng kap tē-kéng ê koan-chhat. Āu--lâi Monet koh tī Charles Gleyre ē-té chò tāi-chì, jî-chhiá gū tio̍h Frédéric Bazille, Alfred Sisley kap Auguste Renoir. Kî-tiong Renoir sī tī École des Beaux-Arts (Bí-su̍t Ha̍k-hāu) chò ha̍k-seng[4].

Monet, Bazille, Sisley kap Renoir, tī 1864 nî hit chūn lóng tī Barbizon hū-kīn ōe-chok, in tī chia bīn-tùi tāi-chū-jiân, ka chiūⁿ Barbizon-phài ê Narcisse Virgilio Díaz ê koan-hē, hoat-tián tùi hong-kéng ê hèng-chhù[5].

Tī Pa-lí, Edouard Manet tùi siàu-liân ōe-ka chin ū éng-hióng-le̍k. Sui-jiân chok-phín Se-pan-gâ Koa-chiá (Le Chanteur espagnol) siū 1861 nî ê Salon tián-lám cha̍p-siū, m̄ koh Manet soah koh tī 1863 nî tùi leh chi̍t kûn ōe-ka hō͘ 1863 nî Salon kī-choat. Chit kān sū-kiāⁿ ín-khí liáu Lo̍h-soán-chiá ê Salon (Salon des Refusés) ê khai-siat. Tián-lám lāi Manet tián-sī i ê Chháu-po͘ téng ê ē-tàu-tèng (Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe), pún chok, tī hui chông-ì ê bûn-ì ē-té piáu-hiān cha-bó͘ thǹg-pak-theh tī kong-hn̂g kap chheng-chhah chèng-tong ê cha-po͘-lâng chia̍h tàu, hong hit tong sî ê lâng kám-kak sī chi̍t kiāⁿ pāi-sio̍k ê tāi-chì. M̄-koh, che tián-tó hō͘ Manet piàn hit chūn gē-su̍t-kài kip-chìn sè-le̍k ê chhōa-thâu[5].

1860 nî-tāi, Monet, Renoir khai-sí hèng-chhù ōe Pa-lí ê kéng-sek, che ē-tàng kóng hoán-èng liáu Manet ê éng-hióng. Manet ê chok-phín Tuileries ê Im-ga̍k (La Musique aux Tuileries), ē-sài kóng phòe-ha̍p liáu hit tang-chūn bûn-ha̍k-ka Charles Baudelaire ê "hiān-tāi seng-oa̍h ê ōe-ka" siat-sióng. Lēng-gōa, chia ōe-ka ê chhòng-chok, oa-ná siū siá-chin-ka Nadar tùi hiān-tāi ke-chhī kap jîn-kûn oa̍h-tāng hip-siōng ê piáu-hiān hong-sek só͘ éng-hiong[6]. Siá-chin tùi Ìn-siōng-phài ê éng-hióng m̄-ná taⁿ ōe-chok chú-tê. Liap-éng ki-su̍t hǒ͘ lâng ē-sài chheng-chó kì-lio̍k kéng-bu̍t, chō-sêng ōe-ka su-khó sin-ê gē-su̍t koan-tiám, pí-lūn chiàu Ìn-siōng-phài lâi kóng, chio̍h sī piáu-hiān tòe sî-kân piàn-hòa ê kng-sòaⁿ kap sek-tī, m̄-sī chhiūⁿ kòe-khì ōe-ka piáu-hiān chi̍t-ê sî-kan tiám[7].

Hoat-tián[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sainte-Adresse ê pán-pîⁿ-téng, 1867 nî chó-iū.

Monet kap Renoir gián-kiù chū-jiân tang-tiong, in hoat-kiàn o͘-iáⁿ kî-si̍t hoán-èng liáu sì-ûi mi̍h-kiāⁿ ê sek-tī, in tī 1867 nî ê chok-phín Sainte-Adresse ê pán-pîⁿ-téng (Terrasse à Sainte-Adresse) kap Lise chio̍h piáu-hiān liáu chit khoán koan-liām. Lēng-gōa chi̍t hong-bīn, chá-chêng ê ōe-ka sī ké-soeh mi̍h-kiāⁿ liáu-āu, ōe chiūⁿ i ê ìn-sióng, hiān-chāi Monet chia ê ōe-ka, siūⁿ beh hòng-khì ké-soeh ê kòe-têng, hi-bāng hō͘ kéng ka-tī tián-hiān pún-sin[8].

La Grenouillère kap Argenteuil sia-seng ê Monet kap Renoir lú-lâi-lú ài sú-iōng khah té ê pit-ōe lâi cho͘-sêng chúi-bīn ê hián-kng, tián-hiān sek-chhái kng-iáⁿ ê chū-jiân piàn-tōng. In chi̍t khoan hong-hoat siū in kâng phài ōe-ka ê him-sióng, chhan-chhiūⁿ Camille Pissarro mā tī i-ê chok-phín piáu-hiān i tùi Monet hia khòaⁿ tio̍h ê kang-gē. Koh chhiⁿ-chhiūⁿ Sisley kap Berthe Morisot mā tī in-ê Grande Jatte Tó ê lé-pài kòe-tàu (Un dimanche après-midi à l'Île de la Grande Jatte) kap Tī hoan-be̍h-hn̂g (Dans les blés) téng chok-phín choán hiòng keng-ka bêng-hián ê Ìn-siōng-phài chhúi-hoat; té-bé liān Manet mā tī 1874 nî ùi Argenteuil tòe o̍h Monet ê iūⁿ-sek[9].

Ìn-siōng-phài Tián-lám-hōe[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tī 1869 kap 1870 nî che nn̄g tang, Monet kap Paul Cézanne chia ìn-siōng-phài ōe-ka iáu koh ū ki-hōe ē-tàng ji̍p soán Salon; m̄ koh kàu 1870 nî-tāi chá-kî, khòng-chè Salon ê gē-su̍t-kài keng-ka hông in hia kip-chìn-phài ōe-ka. Courbet mā in-ūi chèng-tī piáu-ta̍t hō͘ Salon kī-choa̍t. Courbet bat tī 1855 nî ùi Bān-kok Phok-lám-hōe khai-siat Pavillon du réalisme ("siá-sit-phài ê têng-á"), mā tī 1867 nî ê Phok-lám-hōe siat in ka-tī ê su-jîn ōe-tián. Chit chūn hō͘ Monet sán-seng khui-siat in-ê sin tián-lám ê siūⁿ-hoat[10].

1874 nî 4 goe̍h 15 tián-lám-hōe khai-bō͘, Monet tián chhut i biâu-siá Le Havre hái-kháu ê chok-phín Ìn-siōng, ji̍t-chhut. Put-jî-kò tī 1873 nî Salon sêng-kong tián-chhut ê Manet, hòng-khì chham-ka pún kái tiám-liám. "Ìn-siōng-phài" ē-tàng kóng sī chit chūn sán-seng ê kiò-hoat, tong-sî pêng-lūn-chiá kóng ē-tàng kiò chia-ê ōe-ka sī Ìn-siòng-phài, phoe-phêng in "m̄-sī teh ōe hong-kéng, sī teh ōe hóng-kéng sán-seng ê kám-kak[10]."

Thâu pái tiám-lám tī chāi-bū siōng chin si̍t-pāi, chō-sêng chi̍t po͘-hūn chham-ka-chiá liáu-chîn. Chóng-sī in óa-ná î-chhî chhòng-chok, jî-chhiá ùi 1876 nî koh ùi choan-bûn chò Ìn-siōng-phài seng-lí ê Paul Durand-Ruel ê gē-lông kí-pān ōe-tián; kàu 1877 nî, in khai-sí hō ka-tī ê tián-lám kiò "Ìn-siōng-phài Tián-lám-hōe" (L'Exposition des impressionnistes). Sòa--lo̍h-lâi tī 1879 nî kàu 1882 nî, chhām 1886 nî, lóng kè-sio̍k tián-lám jî-chhiá khai-sí thàn-chîⁿ, chóng-sī chìn-chêng khai-siat ōe-tián ê ōe-ka bô lóng ta̍k pái chham-ka. Kàu 1886 nî ê sî, ē-tàng kóng Ìn-siōng-phài ōe-ka í-keng bô su-iàu koh chhiūⁿ kòe-khì á-né chò-hóe phah-piàⁿ[11].

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  • Powell-Jones, Mark; Cooper, Philip (1994). Impressionism. Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-681-46300-7. 
  • Beckett, Wendy; Wright, Patricia (1994). Sister Wendy's Story of Painting. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0133-7. 
  • Sturken, Marita; Cartwright, Lisa (2001). Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-874271-1. 

Chù-kha[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]