Ìn-siōng-phài

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Claude Monet, Ìn-siōng, ji̍t-chhut, 1872 nî, Musée Marmottan bí-su̍t-koán siu-chông.

Ìn-siōng-phài (Hoat-gí: Impressionnisme), he̍k-chiá kóng Ìn-siōng-chú-gī, sī 19 sè-kí tùi Hoat-kok ê Pa-lí khai-sí hoat-tián ê gē-su̍t ūn-tōng, khí-seng ê sêng-goân sī chi̍t koá hui-chú-liû gē-su̍t-ka. Claude Monet ê chok-phín Ìn-siōng, ji̍t-chhut (Impression, soleil levant) sī "ìn-siōng-phài" chit-ê miâ ê gôan-khí.

Āu--lâi sī-kak gē-su̍t ê ūn-tōng tī Se-hng gē-su̍t im-ga̍k lāi-bīn chō-chiâⁿ ìn-siōng-phài im-ga̍k ê hoat-tián.

Ìn-siōng-phài mā sī hiān-tāi-chú-gī gē-su̍t ê khí-thâu.

Kun-goân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ìn-siōng-phài ê goân-thâu chûn-chāi tī chi̍t kóa bô-kâng ê gē-su̍t su-sióng ê ūn-tōng tang-tiong. Tāi-seng sī sī-kak gē-su̍t lāi-bīn ê chū-jiân-chú-gī thoân-thóng, kî-tiong ōe-ka ê khang-khòe hong jīn-ûi sī ài si̍t-chāi piáu-ta̍t hiān-si̍t. M̄-koh, chit khoán thoân-thóng só͘ ín-khí ê gē-su̍t chhòng-chok, sī phòe-ha̍p kong-chiòng he̍k-chiá sī úi-thok-chiá tùi siá-si̍t ê iau-kiû. Tī Ìn-siōng-phài, gē-su̍t-ka pún-sin ê koan-tiám siū tio̍h kiông-tiāu. Che khó-lēng sī Lōng-bān-chú-gī (Romanticism) ê éng-hióng. Nā chiàu Lōng-bān-chú-gī ê khoàⁿ-hoat, lâng kò-thé thoân-ta̍t liáu i tī siā-hōe tiong ê sin-hūn, jî-chhiá gē-su̍t-ka siū kó͘-lē pó-chhî kap it-poaⁿ lâng bô-kâng ê koan-tiám. Lēng-gōa, in koh jīn-ûi chū-jiân m̄-sī siū lâng ê an-pâi. Só͘-í, ē-tàng kóng chū-jiân-chú-gī thê-kiong liáu siá-si̍t ê thoân-thóng; Lōng-bān-chú-gī thê-kiong liáu piáu-ta̍t ōe-ka pún-sin koan-tiám ê lí-sióng[1].

Tû-liáu í-siōng nn̄g khoán lâi-goân, Gustave Courbet kap Barbizon-phài koh ū chi̍t khoán khòaⁿ-hoat, in thê-chhut in hit-tong-sî kek-bēng-chiá ê lí-sióng, kám-kak nā sī it-poaⁿ lâng (phì-jû chò-si̍t-lâng) mā ē-tàng sī ōe-chok ê chú-tê, tio̍h àm-sī kóng chia-ê lâng mā ē-tàng chham-ú chèng-tī. Chiàu chi̍t khoán siūⁿ-hoat, gē-su̍t-ka piáu-ta̍t hiān-si̍t ê khang-khòe m̄ ná sī chi̍t khoán kang-gē, mā sī ū siā-hōe kap tì-se̍k ì-gī ê tāi-chì. Chóng-sī chèng-tī chú-tiuⁿ m̄-sī pún ōe-phài chú-iàu ê chok-iōng, in si̍t-chè siōng sī tī ōe-bīn ê khì-hun kap kng-sòaⁿ téng hong-bīn tùi Ìn-siōng-phài sán-seng éng-hióng[2].

Khí-thâu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1840 nî chhut-sì, tùi Normandie chhut-sin ê Claude Monet, sī chhōa-thâu hoat-tián Ìn-siōng-phài ê ōe-ka. I siū Eugène Boudin ê kiàn-gī tī 1859 nî kòe Pa-lí hoat-tián, ùi su-jîn ê ha̍k-hāu Académie Suisse gián-kiú hong-kéng kap chhiah-sin tô͘-ōe. Monet tī 1860 nî hong chio-peng kòe Algeria, i āu-lâi jīn-ûi i tī Hui-chiu o̍h tio̍h i tùi kng-sòaⁿ kap sek-tī ê ìn-siōng. Monet chò-peng ê sî phòa-pēⁿ tó-tńg tī Le Havre ê pún-hiong, tú tio̍h Hô-lân ōe-ka Johan Barthold Jongkind. Chiàu Monet ka-tī só͘ kóng, Jongkind khé-sī liáu i tùi hái-kéng kap tē-kéng ê koan-chhat. Āu--lâi Monet koh tī Charles Gleyre ē-té chò tāi-chì, jî-chhiá gū tio̍h Frédéric Bazille, Alfred Sisley kap Auguste Renoir. Kî-tiong Renoir sī tī École des Beaux-Arts (Bí-su̍t Ha̍k-hāu) chò ha̍k-seng[3].

Monet, Bazille, Sisley kap Renoir, tī 1864 nî hit chūn lóng tī Barbizon hū-kīn ōe-chok, in tī chia bīn-tùi tāi-chū-jiân, ka chiūⁿ Barbizon-phài ê Narcisse Virgilio Díaz ê koan-hē, hoat-tián tùi hong-kéng ê hèng-chhù[4].

Tī Pa-lí, Edouard Manet tùi siàu-liân ōe-ka chin ū éng-hióng-le̍k. Sui-jiân chok-phín Se-pan-gâ Koa-chiá (Le Chanteur espagnol) siū 1861 nî ê Salon tián-lám cha̍p-siū, m̄ koh Manet soah koh tī 1863 nî tùi leh chi̍t kûn ōe-ka hō͘ 1863 nî Salon kī-choat. Chit kān sū-kiāⁿ ín-khí liáu Lo̍h-soán-chiá ê Salon (Salon des Refusés) ê khai-siat. Tián-lám lāi Manet tián-sī i ê Chháu-po͘ téng ê ē-tàu-tèng (Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe), pún chok, tī hui chông-ì ê bûn-ì ē-té piáu-hiān cha-bó͘ thǹg-pak-theh tī kong-hn̂g kap chheng-chhah chèng-tong ê cha-po͘-lâng chia̍h tàu, hong hit tong sî ê lâng kám-kak sī chi̍t kiāⁿ pāi-sio̍k ê tāi-chì. M̄-koh, che tián-tó hō͘ Manet piàn hit chūn gē-su̍t-kài kip-chìn sè-le̍k ê chhōa-thâu[5].

1860 nî-tāi, Monet, Renoir khai-sí hèng-chhù ōe Pa-lí ê kéng-sek, che ē-tàng kóng hoán-èng liáu Manet ê éng-hióng. Manet ê chok-phín Tuileries ê Im-ga̍k (La Musique aux Tuileries), ē-sài kóng phòe-ha̍p liáu hit tang-chūn bûn-ha̍k-ka Charles Baudelaire ê "hiān-tāi seng-oa̍h ê ōe-ka" siat-sióng. Lēng-gōa, chia ōe-ka ê chhòng-chok, oa-ná siū siá-chin-ka Nadar tùi hiān-tāi ke-chhī kap jîn-kûn oa̍h-tāng hip-siōng ê piáu-hiān hong-sek só͘ éng-hiong[6].

Hoat-tián[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Monet kap Renoir gián-kiù chū-jiân tang-tiong, in hoat-kiàn o͘-iáⁿ kî-si̍t hoán-èng liáu sì-ûi mi̍h-kiāⁿ ê sek-tī, in tī 1867 nî ê chok-phín Sainte-Adresse ê lō͘-tâi (Terrasse à Sainte-Adresse) kap Lise chio̍h piáu-hiān liáu chit khoán koan-liām[7].

Ìn-siōng-phài Tián-lám-hōe[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1874 nî tián-lám-hōe Monet tián chhut i-ê biâu-siá Le Havre hái-kháu ê chok-phín Ìn-siōng, ji̍t-chhut[8].

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  • Powell-Jones, Mark; Cooper, Philip (1994). Impressionism. Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-681-46300-7. 

Chù-kha[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]