Arthur Schopenhauer

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Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer colorized.jpg
Schopenhauer in 1859 (colorized photograph)
Tshut-sì 1788 nî 2 goe̍h 22 ji̍t(1788-02-22)
Kuè-sin 1860 nî 9 goe̍h 21 ji̍t (72 hòe)
Kok-tsi̍k German
Era 19th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
Institutions University of Berlin
Main interests
Metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics, morality, psychology
Notable ideas
Anthropic principle[4][5]
Eternal justice
Fourfold root of the principle of sufficient reason
Hedgehog's dilemma
Philosophical pessimism
Principium individuationis
Will as thing in itself
Criticism of religion
Criticism of German idealism[6][7]
Schopenhauerian aesthetics
Wooden iron
Arthur Schopenhauer Signature.svg

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 nî 2 goe̍h 22 ji̍t - 1860 nî 9 goe̍h 21 ji̍t) sī Tek-kok ê tiat-ha̍k-ka. I ê su-sióng siok koan-liām-lūn (idealism).

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. "Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". 
  2. Frederick C. Beiser reviews the commonly held position that Schopenhauer was a transcendental idealist and he rejects it: "Though it is deeply heretical from the standpoint of transcendental idealism, Schopenhauer's objective standpoint involves a form of transcendental realism, i.e. the assumption of the independent reality of the world of experience." (Beiser 2016, p. 40)
  3. Voluntarism (philosophy)
  4. Arthur Schopenhauer, Arthur Schopenhauer: The World as Will and Presentation, Volume 1, Routledge, 2016, p. 211: "the world [is a] mere presentation, object for a subject ..."
  5. Lennart Svensson, Borderline: A Traditionalist Outlook for Modern Man, Numen Books, 2015, p. 71: "[Schopenhauer] said that 'the world is our conception'. A world without a perceiver would in that case be an impossibility. But we can—he said—gain knowledge about Essential Reality for looking into ourselves, by introspection. ... This is one of many examples of the anthropic principle. The world is there for the sake of man."
  6. The World as Will and Representation, vol. 3, Ch. 50.
  7. Dale Jacquette, pian. (2007). Schopenhauer, Philosophy and the Arts. Cambridge University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-521-04406-6. For Kant, the mathematical sublime, as seen for example in the starry heavens, suggests to imagination the infinite, which in turn leads by subtle turns of contemplation to the concept of God. Schopenhauer's atheism will have none of this, and he rightly observes that despite adopting Kant's distinction between the dynamical and mathematical sublime, his theory of the sublime, making reference to the struggles and sufferings of struggles and sufferings of Will, is unlike Kant's. 
  8. Schopenhauer, Arthur. The World as Will and Representation. 1, Book 4. For the philosopher, these accounts of the lives of holy, self-denying men, badly as they are generally written, and mixed as they are with superstition and nonsense, are, because of the significance of the material, immeasurably more instructive and important than even Plutarch and Livy. ... But the spirit of this development of Christianity is certainly nowhere so fully and powerfully expressed as in the writings of the German mystics, in the works of Meister Eckhard, and in that justly famous book Die Deutsche Theologie. 
  9. Howard, Don A. (December 2005), "Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science" (PDF), Physics Today, 58 (12): 34–40, Bibcode:2005PhT....58l..34H, doi:10.1063/1.2169442, goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 2022-10-09 hőng khó͘-pih, 8 March 2015 khòaⁿ--ê – via University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage, From Schopenhauer he had learned to regard the independence of spatially separated systems as, virtually, a necessary a priori assumption ... Einstein regarded his separation principle, descended from Schopenhauer's principium individuationis, as virtually an axiom for any future fundamental physics. ... Schopenhauer stressed the essential structuring role of space and time in individuating physical systems and their evolving states. This view implies that difference of location suffices to make two systems different in the sense that each has its own real physical state, independent of the state of the other. For Schopenhauer, the mutual independence of spatially separated systems was a necessary a priori truth. 
  10. Frederick C. Beiser, "After Hegel: German Philosophy, 1840–1900." Princeton University Press. 2014. p. 49: "Dilthey's conception of a worldview, as he finally formulated it in Das Wesen der Philosophie, shows a large debt to Schopenhauer. Like his great forebear, Dilthey believed that philosophy had first and foremost an ethical function, that its main purpose was to address 'the puzzle of the world'."
  11. "John Gray: Forget everything you know – Profiles, People". The Independent. London. 3 September 2002. goân-loē-iông tī 9 April 2010 hőng khó͘-pih. 12 March 2010 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  12. Allan Janik and Stephen Toulmin (1973). Wittgenstein's Vienna. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 74. Kraus himself was no philosopher, even less a scientist. If Kraus's views have a philosophical ancestry, this comes most assuredly from Schopenhauer; for alone among the great philosophers, Schopenhauer was a kindred spirit, a man of philosophical profundity, with a strange talent for polemic and aphorism, a literary as weIl as philosophical genius. Schopenhauer, indeed, was the only philosopher who at all appealed to Kraus. 
  13. Kerr, R. B. (1932). "Anthony M. Ludovici The prophet of anti-feminism". 5 May 2019 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. Bassani, Giuseppe-Franco (15 December 2006). Società Italiana di Fisica, pian. Ettore Majorana: Scientific Papers. Springer. p. xl. ISBN 978-3-540-48091-4. His interest in philosophy, which had always been great, increased and prompted him to reflect deeply on the works of various philosophers, in particular Schopenhauer. 
  15. Magee, Bryan (1997). Confessions of a Philosopher. , Ch. 16
  16. B.F. McGuinness. Moritz Schlick. pp. 336–37. Once again, one has to understand Schlick's world conception, which he took over from Schopenhauer's world as representation and as will. … “To will something”—and here Schlick is heavily influenced by Schopenhauer 
  17. Maertz, Gregory (1994). "Elective Affinities: Tolstoy and Schopenhauer". Wiener Slavistisches Jahrbuch. Harrassowitz Verlag. 40: 53–62. ISSN 0084-0041. JSTOR 24748326. 

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