Bitcoin

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Bitcoin (; "bit") sī chi̍t khoán àm-bé thong-hòe (cryptocurrency) kiam kau-siàu hē-thóng (payment system),[1] khí-seng sī sin-hūn kiam lâng-sò͘ put-bêng ê ké-miâ jîn-bu̍t Satoshi Nakamoto khai-hoat--ê. Bitcoin tī 2008 nî 10 goe̍h 31 ji̍t keng-kòe chi̍t-ê àm-bé-ha̍k iû-kiaⁿ lia̍t-toaⁿ (mailing list) kài-siāu chhut--lâi, 2009 nî ê sî hoat-hêng khai-hòng goân-sú-bé ńg-thé.

Bitcoin ê seng-sán, sī tiān-náu chip-hêng hō chò "chhái-ku̍t" (mining) ê khang-khòe ê sî-chūn sán-seng ê chióng-lē. 2017 nî 3 goe̍h 2 ji̍t, Bitcoin thâu chi̍t kái bí tan-ūi--ê kè-ta̍t chhiau-kòe 1 ounce--ê n̂g-kim.[2]

Siat-kè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Blockchain[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bitcoin ê blockchain sī chi̍t khoán kong-khai ê chóng-phō͘ (ledger), thang kì-lio̍k bitcoin ê lâi-óng siàu-hāng (transaction).[3] Che sī chi̍t khoán bô su-iàu keng-kòe siū sìn-jīm ê tiong-iong ki-koan lâi chhù-lí siàu-ba̍k ê hē-thóng. Blockchain sī lī-ēng chē-chē chip-hêng bitcoin nńg-thé ê node (sio-chiap tiám) sio-chiap ê tiān-náu bāng-lō͘ leh ūn-choán.[1] Bitcoin ê lâi-óng ē hiòng chit-ê bāng-lō͘ hòng-sàng.[4], hō͘ chia tī bāng-lō͘ lāi-bīn ê node thang kiám-giām siàu ê lâi-óng, kì ji̍p in kò-pia̍t ê chóng-phō͘ téng-bīn, koh kā chia chóng-phō͘ ê siàu-bo̍k hòng-sàng hō͘ pa̍t-ê node. Blockchain pún-sin sī chi̍t chióng hun-sòaⁿ-sek chu-liāu-khò͘, tī ta̍k-ê node lóng khǹg kui hūn blockchain ê khó͘-pih.[5] Chi̍t cho͘ hông chiap-siū ê bitcoin lâi-óng, tiō sī chi̍t-ê block, bí chi̍t tōaⁿ sî-kang to̍h sán-seng sin-ê block ka-ji̍p blockchain, jî-chhiá hiòng só͘-ū ê node hoat-pò͘. Che hō͘ bitcoin nńg-thé thang khak-tēng tang-sî ū it-tēng sò͘-liōng ê bitcoin hông chi-chhut, goân-sêng tī bô tiong-iong kàm-tok ê chêng-hêng tang-tiong hông-chí siang-têng chi-chhut (double-spending).[6]

Lâi-óng-siàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bitcoin ê lâi-óng-siàu (transaction) sī ēng chi̍t khoán kap Forth beh-kâng ê kha-pún giân-gí kì--ê.[6]:ch. 5 Lâi-óng-siàu hâm kò-pia̍t chi̍t hāng í-siōng ê ji̍p-siàu (input) kap chhut-siàu (output). Tong iōng-chiá sàng chhut bitcoin ê sî-chūn, i ài chí-tèng beh chhut-siàu ê chū-chí kap sàng chhut ê bitcoin sò͘-liōng. Ūi tio̍h bián-tit siang-tnêg chi-chhut, ta̍k tiâu ji̍p-siàu lóng ū tòa chí-tēng chá-chêng tī blockchain lāi-bīn chi̍t tiâu bī-chi-chhut ê chhut-siàu.[7] Bí chi̍t tiâu lâi-óng-siàu ē-tàng hâm chē tiâu chhut-siàu, só͘-í iōng-chiá thang tī chi̍t kái lâi-óng tang-tiong hiòng chē-ê chiap-siū-hong sàng chhut bitcoin. Tī ji̍p-siàu lāi-bīn ke--chhut-lâi ê chîⁿ, chiâⁿ chò lâi-óng hùi-iōng (transaction fee).[7] Che lâi-óng hùi-iōng sī bô kiông-chè ài la̍p.[7] Chóng-sī chhái-ku̍t-hong leh kéng siàu chhut-lâi chhù-lí ê sî-chūn, sī iu-sian chhōe kiáu hùi-iōng khah koân ê siàu. Hùi-iōng koan-hē tio̍h lâi-óng-siàu chiàm ê chûn-tóng tōa-sió, só͘-í tio̍h koan-hē sán-seng he lâi-óng-siàu ê ji̍p-siàu siàu-bo̍k sò͘-liōng.[6]

Só͘-iú-khoân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tī blockchain lāi-bīn, bitcoin sī teng-kì tī it-tēng ê chū-chí (address). Chū-chí ê kiàn-li̍p sī loān-sò͘ kéng chhut chi̍t chōa sai-khia só-sî (private key), jî-chhiá kè-sǹg tùi-èng ê bitcoin chū-chí. Chiàu siat-kè sī bô hoat-tō͘ tùi chū-chí sǹg chhut sai-khia só-sî. Lēng-gōa, in-ūi só-sî ê khó-lêng sò͘-liōng siuⁿ tōa, chiàu lí-sióng mā bô hoat-tō͘ sǹg chhut í-keng teh sú-iōng ê sai-khia só-sî/chū-chí ê phòe-tùi. Nā beh chi-chhut bitcoin, só͘-iú-chiá ài chai-iáⁿ ka-tī ê sai-khia só-sî jî-chhiá kā siàu-hāng chò sò͘-ūi chhiam-miâ. Tī gōa-kháu bāng-lō͘ hit pêng to̍h ēng kong-ke só-sî lâi kiám-giām chhiam-miâ.[6]:ch. 5

Chhái-ku̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chia kóng ê chhái-ku̍t (mining) si̍t-chè siōng sī lī-ēng tiān-náu ê chhù-lí lêng-le̍k chò pó-chhî kì-lio̍k ê khang-khòe. Chhái-ku̍t-kang ē-tàng keng-kòe chò chit hāng khang-khòe tit tio̍h siû-kim.[8] Chhái-ku̍t-kang ê khang-khòe sī kā sin hòng-sàng ji̍p bāng-lō͘ siū kiám-giām ê lâi-óng siàu-hāng pun chò block, pó-chhî liáu blockchain ê it-tì, oân-pī, kap bē-tàng têng kái ê sèng-chit.[3] Ta̍k-ê block hâm chi̍t pit sio̍k chêng chi̍t tè block ê SHA-256 àm-bé-ha̍k hash.[3] "Blockchain" chit-ê hō-miâ ê lâi-goân to̍h sī hia sio khan-liân ê block.[6]:ch. 7[3]

Sin ê block sán-seng, ài kòa chò-kang chèng-bêng (proof-of-work), chiah thang hō kui-ê bāng-lō͘ chiap-siū.[3] Chò-kang chèng-bêng su-iàu chhái-ku̍t-kang khì chhōe chi̍t chō͘ hō chò nonce ê hō-bé.[6]:ch. 8 Chit hāng chèng-bêng ē-tàng hō͘ bāng-lō͘ kán-tan lâi kiám-giām, m̄-koh beh sán-seng sī chin hùi kang. Ài chhì-giām chē kái bô kâng ê nonce, chiah ē-tàng ta̍t kàu khùn-lân-tō͘ bo̍k-phiau (difficulty target).[6]:ch. 8 Chia kóng ê khùn-lân-tō͘ bo̍k-phiau sī tòe bitcoin bāng-lō͘ tong-sî chhái-ku̍t lêng-le̍k lâi tiâu-chéng--ê, bo̍k-te̍k sī beh pó-chhî iok-lio̍k bí 10 hun-cheng seⁿ chi̍t-ê sin block ê sok-tō͘.[6]:ch. 8

Lêng-goân siau-hùi[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bitcoin chhái-ku̍t khang-khòe ê tiān-le̍k siau-hùi ū siū tio̍h phoe-phêng. Chiàu 2015 nî The Economist ê ko͘-sǹg, nā choân-pō͘ chhái-ku̍t-chiá lóng ēng hiān-tāi siat-pī, chóng-ha̍p ê tiān-le̍k siau-hùi khó-lêng ū 166.7 megawatt (bí tang 1.46 terawatt tiám-cheng).[9] Kàu 2017 nî-té, thong sè-kài ê bitcoin chhái-ku̍t chiàu ko͘-sǹg sī ài khai 1 kàu 4 gigawatt ê tiān-le̍k.[10] Politico pat chí-chhut hiān-taⁿ ê gîn-hâng ki-koan khai-hùi iok-lio̍k 6% ê choân-kiû tiān-le̍k, nā chún bitcoin ēng-tiān ê thêng-tō͘ pí chit chūn ka-thiam 100 pōe, i-ê siau-hùi mā ka-taⁿ choân-kiû tiān-le̍k ê 2%.[11]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jerry Brito & Andrea Castillo (2013). "Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers" (PDF). Mercatus Center. George Mason University. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn (PDF) tī 21 September 2013. 22 October 2013 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "Bitcoin value tops gold for first time". BBC.com. 2017-03-03. 2017-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "The great chain of being sure about things". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 31 October 2015. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 3 July 2016. 3 July 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. "Bitcoin Wallet". Investopedia. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 19 August 2016. 28 June 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. Sparkes, Matthew (9 June 2014). "The coming digital anarchy". The Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2015-01-23. 7 January 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Andreas M. Antonopoulos (April 2014). Mastering Bitcoin. Unlocking Digital Crypto-Currencies. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-7404-4. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Joshua A. Kroll; Ian C. Davey; Edward W. Felten (11–12 June 2013). "The Economics of Bitcoin Mining, or Bitcoin in the Presence of Adversaries" (PDF). The Twelfth Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS 2013). Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn (PDF) tī 9 May 2016. 26 April 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. A transaction fee is like a tip or gratuity left for the miner. 
  8. Andolfatto, David (31 March 2014). "Bitcoin and Beyond: The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Virtual Currencies" (PDF). Dialogue with the Fed. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn (PDF) tī 9 April 2014. 16 April 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. "The magic of mining". The Economist. 13 January 2015. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 12 January 2015. 13 January 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. Mooney, Chris; Mufson, Steven (19 December 2017). "Why the bitcoin craze is using up so much energy". The Washington Post. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 9 January 2018. 11 January 2018 khòaⁿ--ê. several experts told The Washington Post that bitcoin probably uses as much as 1 to 4 gigawatts, or billion watts, of electricity, roughly the output of one to three nuclear reactors. 
  11. Roberts, Paul (9 March 2018). "This Is What Happens When Bitcoin Miners Take Over Your Town - Eastern Washington had cheap power and tons of space. Then the suitcases of cash started arriving". Politico. 16 March 2018 khòaⁿ--ê.