Carbohydrate

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Carbohydrate sī hâm-ū oxygen, hydrogen, kap carbon ê hòa-ha̍p-bu̍t. I sī iû monosaccharide ê thn̂g cho·-sêng, ē-sái iōng hòa-ha̍k-sek Cn(H2O)n lâi piáu-sī, he̍k chit-chióng sêng-hun ê ián-seng-bu̍t. Pau-koah si̍t-bu̍t kap tōng-bu̍t ê tāi-to-sò· seng-bu̍t chāi-lāi, bó·-mih-á carbohydrate sī lêng-liōng tû-chûn kap choán-î ê tiōng-iàu hêng-sek. Àn-chiàu cho·-sêng ê thn̂g ê sò·-bo̍k, carbohydrate ē-sái hun-chò: monosaccharide (chhan-chhiūⁿ phô-thô-thn̂g kap kó-thn̂g), disaccharide (chhan-chhiūⁿ chià-thn̂g, be̍h-gê-thn̂g kap ni-thn̂g), oligosaccharide, kap polysaccharide (chhan-chhiūⁿ tiān-hún, koaⁿ-thn̂g, kap chhiam-ûi-sò·.


Tan-sûn ê carbohydrate hâm-ū carbon, hydrogen kap oxygen goân-chú, í 1:2:1 ê mole pí-lu̍t cho·-sêng, ē-sái siá-chò hun-chú-sek Cn(H2O)n. (Chit-ê hun-chú-sek kan-taⁿ sek-ha̍p monosacchride, ah Cn(H2O)m khah sek-ha̍p tāi-to-sò· ê carbohydrate. Sui-bóng chiâⁿ-chē tiōng-iàu ê "carbohydrate" sī ián-seng chū chit-ê kiat-kò·, chhan-chhiūⁿ deoxyribose kap glycerol, in pēng-bô hù-ha̍p giâm-keh ê carbohydrate ê tēng-gī, só·-í in m̄-sī carbohydrate. Ū chi̍t-kóa hòa-ha̍p-bu̍t hâm-ū kî-thaⁿ ê goân-sò· mā sǹg-sī carbohydrate (chhan-chhiūⁿ chitin, i hâm-ū nitrogen).

Siāng-kán-tan ê carbohydrate sī monosaccharide, 1 tiâu sè-tiâu ti̍t-ti̍t ê aldehyde kap ketone kò·-chō, tû-tiāu siang-pêng-thâu ê kong-lêng-ki bô í-gōa, ū chē-chē ê hydroxyl group tī ta̍k-ê carbon ê piⁿ-á. Kî-thaⁿ ê carbohydrate sī iû monosaccharide chò tan-ūi lâi cho·-sêng, ē-sái thàu-kòe chúi-kái lâi hun-kái. Hâm 2 ê monosaccharide ê kìo-chò disaccharide, 2 ê kàu 9 ê ê kiò-chò oligosaccharide, 10 ê í-siōng ê kìo polysaccharide.