Chiáu

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?Chiáu
Malurus cyaneus (chiáu-kiáⁿ)
Hoà-chio̍h hoān-ûi
Late Jurassic - Recent
Seng-bu̍t-ha̍k hun-lūi
Kài: Animalia
Mn̂g: Chordata
A-mn̂g: Vertebrata
(bô hun-kip) Archosauria
Kong: Aves
Linnaeus, 1758
Ba̍k
Khoàⁿ loē-bûn.

Chiáu-ásio-hoeh, ē pàng-nn̄g ê chek-chui tōng-bu̍t, chú-iàu ê te̍k-teng sī ū ú (feather), ū chò si̍t iōng--ê chêng-pì (forelimb), it-poaⁿ ū khang-sim ê kut-thâu. Chiáu-lūi siōng sè khó-pí kûn-thâu-bú (phang-chhek/hummingbird), siōng toā chhan-chhiūⁿ nâ-kiû kiû-oân (tô-chiáu, Emu) hiah lò.

Hun-lūi kap chìn-hòa[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiàu Jacques Gauthier ê gián-kiù, chiáu-lūi ū 4 khoán hō͘-siōng chhiong-tu̍t ê tēng-gī.[1] Chêng 3 hāng sī khah ū būn-tê ê tēng-gī, chia 4 hāng hun pia̍t sī:

  1. Chiáu-lūi sī chí chú-liông-lūi (archosaur) lāi-bīn ū ú-mô͘ ê sin-chìn-chiá.
  2. Chiáu-lūi sī chí ē-tàng poe--ê.
  3. Chiau-lūi sī chí só͘-ū khah óa chiáu khah bô óa kho̍k-hî--ê.
  4. Chiáu-lūi sī chí só͘-ū hiān-chûn chiáu-á kap in āu-sì ê kiōng-tông ê chó͘-chian.

Tē 4 hāng īs chi̍t khoán Gauthier thê-chhut ê hun-lūi tēng-gī:

Ha̍k-kài tùi chiáu-lūi bô goân-choân it-chè ê hun-lūi. Charles Sibley kap Jon Ahlquist (1990 nî) ê Chiáu ê Hūn-lūi kap Hē-thóng-lūn (Phylogeny and Classification of Birds) sī tùi chiáu-lūi hun-lūi ê tiòng-iàu tì-chok.[2] Chiàu it-poaⁿ chèng-kù, in-ê bo̍k sī hông jīn-ûi chèng-khak--ê,[3] chóng--sī bo̍k chi kan ê koan-hē iá koh siū ha̍k-chiá cheng-lūn.

Ē-té sī tùi hiān-tāi chiáu-lūi kun-kù Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014) tùi 48-ê tāi-piáu bu̍t-chéng ê choân ûi-thoán-thé tēng-sū (whole genome sequencing) gián-kiù[4] kap pō͘-hūn Yury, T. et al. (2013) [5] chū-liāu chè-chō ê chi̍t khoán chhin-oân koan-hē tô͘:

Chiáu
Palaeognathae

Struthioniformes (tô-chiáu)Cuvier-67 Autruche d'Afrique.jpg


Notopalaeognathae

Rheiformes (rheas)Cuvier-67 Nandou d'Amérique.jpg





Dinornithiformes (moas)Extinct birds (Plate 41) Megalapteryx didinus.png




Lithornithiformes



Tinamiformes (tinamous)NothuraDarwiniiSmit white background.jpg




Novaeratitae

Casuariiformes (emus & cassowaries)Cayley Casuarius casuarius flipped.jpg




Apterygiformes (kiwi)The genera of birds (white background).jpg



Aepyornithiformes (chhiūⁿ-chiáu)Aepyornis white background.jpg







Neognathae
Galloanserae

Galliformes (chicken, grouse, turkeys, etc.)Red Junglefowl by George Edward Lodge white background.png


Odontoanserae

Pelagornithidae


Anserimorphae

GastornithiformesGastornis 1917 white background.jpg



Anseriformes (ah, gô, kap thian-gô)Cuvier-97-Canard colvert.jpg





Neoaves
Columbea
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)Cuvier-87-Flamant rouge.jpg



Podicipediformes (grebes)Podiceps cristatus Naumann white background.jpg



Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (hún-chiáu kap dodo)Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon - ein Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen Wissens (1908) (Antwerpener Breiftaube).jpgDidus cucullatus white background.jpg




Mesitornithiformes (mesites)Monias benschi 1912 white background.jpg



Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses)Pterocles quadricinctus white background.jpg





Passerea


Cypselomorphae (hummingbirds, swifts)Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg


Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)British birds in their haunts (Cuculus canorus).jpg




Otidiformes (bustards)Cayley Ardeotis australis flipped.jpg



Musophagiformes (turacos)Planches enluminées d'histoire naturelle (1765) (Tauraco persa).jpg








Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Cuvier-59-Hoazin huppé.jpg


Cursorimorphae

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Cuvier-72-Grue cendrée.jpg



Charadriiformes (gulls, auks, shorebirds, waders)D'Orbigny-Mouette rieuse et Bec-en-ciseaux white background.jpg







Aequornithes (loons, khiā-gô, herons, pelicans, storks, etc)Cuvier-90-Manchot du Cap.jpgCuvier-75-Cigogne blanche.jpg


Eurypygimorphae

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu)Cuvier-72-Caurale soleil.jpg



Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Cuvier-95-Phaeton à bec rouge.jpg




Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (condors and New World vultures)Vintage Vulture Drawing white background.jpg



Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, Old World vultures etc.)Golden Eagle Illustration white background.jpg





Strigiformes (owls)Cuvier-12-Hibou à huppe courte.jpg


Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)


Eucavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)


Cavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)Harpactes fasciatus 1838 white background.jpg


Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)A monograph of the Bucerotidæ, or family of the hornbills (Plate II) (white background).jpgBritish birds in their haunts ((1922)) (Upupa epops).jpg




Coraciformes (kingfishers etc.)Cuvier-46-Martin-pêcheur d'Europe.jpg



Piciformes (woodpeckers, toucans etc.)Atlante ornitologico (Tav. 26) (picchio verde).jpgCuvier-54-Toucan à carène.jpg









Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas, terror birds etc)Cariama cristata 1838 white background.jpgLlallawavis scagliai.jpg


Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)NewZealandFalconBuller white background.jpg


Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Pyrrhura lucianii - Castelnau 2.jpg



Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)Cuvier-33-Moineau domestique.jpgPlanches enluminées d'histoire naturelle (1765) Corvus corone.jpg













Hun-pò͘[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiáu-lūi seng-oa̍h tī tōa-pō͘-hūn ê lio̍k-tē, tí chhit ê tāi-lio̍k lóng ū chûn-chāi, siâng óa lâm-pêng ê chéng-lūi sī Lâm-kek-chiu hióng lōe-lio̍k 440 kong-lí ū cho̍k-kûn ê Pagodroma nivea.[6] Jia̍t-tāi só͘-chāi sī chiáu-lūi ê to-iūⁿ-sèng (biodiversity) siāng hoat-ta̍t ê tē-khu.

Kái-phò-ha̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiáu ê kun-keh cho͘-sêng sī chin khin ê kut-thâu, lāi-bīn hâm ē-táng ji̍p khong-khì, kap ho͘-khip hē-thóng sio chiap ê khang-phāng.[7]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Gauthier, J., and de Queiroz, K. (2001). "Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name Aves." Pp. 7–41 in New perspectives on the origin and early evolution of birds: proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom (J. A. Gauthier and L. F. Gall, eds.). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
  2. Sibley, Charles; Jon Edward Ahlquist (1990). Phylogeny and classification of birds. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. 
  3. Mayr, Ernst; Short, Lester L. (1970). Species Taxa of North American Birds: A Contribution to Comparative Systematics. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, no. 9. Cambridge, Mass.: Nuttall Ornithological Club. OCLC 517185. 
  4. Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904. PMID 25504713. 
  5. Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. 
  6. Brooke, Michael (2004). Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850125-0. 
  7. Ehrlich, Paul R.; David S. Dobkin; Darryl Wheye (1988). "Adaptations for Flight". Birds of Stanford. Stanford University. 13 December 2007 khòaⁿ--ê.  Based on The Birder's Handbook (Paul Ehrlich, David Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye. 1988. Simon and Schuster, New York.)