Hoân-gí

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Saṃskṛtam
संस्कृत-, संस्कृतम्
Saṃskṛta-, Saṃskṛtam
BhagavadGita-19th-century-Illustrated-Sanskrit-Chapter 1.20.21.jpg
Sanskrit College 1999 stamp of India.jpg
(top) A 19th-century illustrated Sanskrit manuscript from the Bhagavad Gita,[1] composed c. 400 BCE – 200 BCE.[2][3] (bottom) The 175th-anniversary stamp of the third-oldest Sanskrit college, Sanskrit College, Calcutta. The oldest is Benares Sanskrit College, founded in 1791.
Hoat-im [ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐm]
Sú-iōng tē-khu South Asia (ancient and medieval), parts of Southeast Asia (medieval)
Era c. 1500 – 600 BCE (Vedic Sanskrit);[4]
700 BCE – 1350 CE (Classical Sanskrit)[5]
ho̍k-heng There are no known native speakers of Sanskrit.[6][7][8][9][10][11]
Gí-hē
Chá-kî hêng-sek
Bûn-jī hē-thóng Originally orally transmitted. Not attested in writing until the 1st century BCE, when it was written in the Brahmi script, and later in various Brahmic scripts.[lower-alpha 1][12][13]
Koaⁿ-hong tē-ūi
Koaⁿ-hong gí-giân  India[lower-alpha 2]
Sêng-jīn ê
chió-sò͘ gí-giân
Gí-giân tāi-bé
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2 san
ISO 639-3 san
Glottolog sans1269
Che bûn-chiong pau-hâm IPA hû-hō. Nā-sī bô siong-koan ê jī-hêng chi-oān, lí khó-lêng ē khoàⁿ tio̍h būn-hō, hng-kheng ia̍h-sī khî-thaⁿ hû-hō, bô-hoat-tō͘ chèng-siông hián-sī Unicode jī-goân. Chhiáⁿ lí khoàⁿ Help:IPA.

Hoân-gí (संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam), sī chi̍t khoán Indo-Aryan gí-giân, sī Ìn-tō͘ chèng-hú kong-pò͘ ê kó͘-tián gí-giân kiam 22 khoán pâi-tēng gí-giân (scheduled language) chi it; mā-sī Uttarakhand pang ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân. Hoân-gí sī le̍k-sú-siōng tiōng-iàu ê ha̍k-su̍t kap chong-kàu gí-giân.

Tsù-sik[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. "In conclusion, there are strong systemic and paleographic indications that the Brahmi script derived from a Semitic prototype, which, mainly on historical grounds, is most likely to have been Aramaic. However, the details of this problem remain to be worked out, and in any case, it is unlikely that a complete letter-by-letter derivation will ever be possible; for Brahmi may have been more of an adaptation and remodeling, rather than a direct derivation, of the presumptive Semitic prototype, perhaps under the influence of a preexisting Indian tradition of phonetic analysis. However, the Semitic hypothesis is not so strong as to rule out the remote possibility that further discoveries could drastically change the picture. In particular, a relationship of some kind, probably partial or indirect, with the protohistoric Indus Valley script should not be considered entirely out of the question." Salomon 1998, p. 30
  2. It is one of 22 Eighth Schedule languages for which the Constitution mandates development.
  3. Sanskrit is "Protected Language" Under Constitution, Chapter 1 (6) (5) (b) (¡¡)[14]

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Mascaró, Juan (2003). The Bhagavad Gita. Penguin. pp. 13 ff. ISBN 978-0-14-044918-1. The Bhagawad Gita, an intensely spiritual work, that forms one of the cornerstones of the Hindu faith, and is also one of the masterpieces of Sanskrit poetry. (from the backcover) 
  2. Besant, Annie (trans) (1922). The Bhagavad-gita; or, The Lord's Song, with text in Devanagari, and English translation. Madras: G. E. Natesan & Co. प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसम्पाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ॥ २० ॥
    Then, beholding the sons of Dhritarâshtra standing arrayed, and flight of missiles about to begin, ... the son of Pându, took up his bow,(20)
    हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते । अर्जुन उवाच । ...॥ २१ ॥
    And spake this word to Hrishîkesha, O Lord of Earth: Arjuna said: ...
     
  3. Radhakrishnan, S. (1948). The Bhagavadgītā: With an introductory essay, Sanskrit text, English translation, and notes. London, UK: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. p. 86. ... pravyite Sastrasampate
    dhanur udyamya pandavah (20)
    Then Arjuna, ... looked at the sons of Dhrtarastra drawn up in battle order; and as the flight of missiles (almost) started, he took up his bow.
    hystkesam tada vakyam
    idam aha mahipate ... (21)
    And, O Lord of earth, he spoke this word to Hrsikesha (Krsna): ...
     
  4. Uta Reinöhl (2016). Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan. Oxford University Press. pp. xiv, 1–16. ISBN 978-0-19-873666-0. 
  5. Colin P. Masica 1993, p. 55: "Thus Classical Sanskrit, fixed by Panini’s grammar in probably the fourth century BC on the basis of a class dialect (and preceding grammatical tradition) of probably the seventh century BC, had its greatest literary flowering in the first millennium AD and even later, much of it therefore a full thousand years after the stage of the language it ostensibly represents."
  6. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī patrick-mccartney-5-10-20
  7. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī patrick-mccartney-5-11-20
  8. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī sreevastan-thehindu-sanskrit
  9. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Lowe2017
  10. Ruppel, A. M. (2017). The Cambridge Introduction to Sanskrit. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-107-08828-3. The study of any ancient (or dead) language is faced with one main challenge: ancient languages have no native speakers who could provide us with examples of simple everyday speech 
  11. Annamalai, E. (2008). "Contexts of multilingualism". Chū Braj B. Kachru; Yamuna Kachru; S. N. Sridhar. Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Some of the migrated languages ... such as Sanskrit and English, remained primarily as a second language, even though their native speakers were lost. Some native languages like the language of the Indus valley were lost with their speakers, while some linguistic communities shifted their language to one or other of the migrants' languages. 
  12. Jain, Dhanesh (2007). "Sociolinguistics of the Indo-Aryan languages". Chū George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 47–66, 51. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. In the history of Indo-Aryan, writing was a later development and its adoption has been slow even in modern times. The first written word comes to us through Asokan inscriptions dating back to the third century BC. Originally, Brahmi was used to write Prakrit (MIA); for Sanskrit (OIA) it was used only four centuries later (Masica 1991: 135). The MIA traditions of Buddhist and Jain texts show greater regard for the written word than the OIA Brahminical tradition, though writing was available to Old Indo-Aryans. 
  13. Salomon, Richard (2007). "The Writing Systems of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Chū George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 67–102. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. Although in modern usage Sanskrit is most commonly written or printed in Nagari, in theory, it can be represented by virtually any of the main Brahmi-based scripts, and in practice it often is. Thus scripts such as Gujarati, Bangla, and Oriya, as well as the major south Indian scripts, traditionally have been and often still are used in their proper territories for writing Sanskrit. Sanskrit, in other words, is not inherently linked to any particular script, although it does have a special historical connection with Nagari. 
  14. "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions". gov.za. 6 December 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. 

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