Put-kui-chek tōng-sû

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Put-kui-chek tōng-sû sī bô-ha̍h chi̍t-ê chòng-ha̍p-gí (pí-lūn kau-tio̍k-gí (膠著語) kap khut-chiat-gí (屈折語)) lāi-té--ê tōng-sû piàn-hòa kui-chek--ê tōng-sû.

Pí-lūn, Eng-gí--ê tōng-sû kòe-khì-sek tong-siông sī "goân-hêng tōng-sû-ed", chhin-chhiūⁿ repeat (koh chò) → repeated. M̄-koh do (chò)--ê kòe-khì-sek--sî did, só͘-í "do" sī put-kui-chek tōng-sû.

Ìn-au gí-hē[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Eng-gí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  • Chit-kóa tōng-sû sui-bóng sī put-kui-chek piàn-hòa, tān-sī mā ū chit-kóa kui-chek. Chún-nā chiàu "goân-hêng - kòe-khì-sek (past tense) - kòe-khì hun-sû (past principle)" lâi pâi, kui-chek tōng-sû--ê piàn-hòa sī: "goân-hêng - goân-hêng + ed - goân-hêng + ed" (pí-lūn: repeat - repeated - repeated), m̄-koh put-kui-chek tōng-sû--ê piàn-hòa nā chiàu án-ne pâi thang hun-chò ē-kha--ê hun-lūi:
    • ABC hêng (chit 3-ê piàn-hòa lông bô-kâng).
      • Lē: sing - sang - sung (chhiùⁿ)
    • ABB hêng (kòe-khì-sek hām kòe-khì hun-sû sio kâng).
      • Lē: leave - left - left (lī-khui, lâu)
    • ABA hêng (goân-hêng kap kòe-khì hun-sû sio kâng).
      • Lē: become - became - become (piàn-chò)
    • AAA hêng (chit 3-ê piàn-hòa pheng-hoat lóng kâng-khoán):
      • Lē: put - put - put (khǹg)

Ū-sî-á in-ūi tōng-sû--ê lâi-goân bô-kâng, tiō ū bô-kâng ì-sù, jî-chhiáⁿ mā ū bô-kâng--ê tōng-sû piàn-hòa. Pí-lûn "lead" nā chí "léng-tō, chhōa"--ê ì-sù, piàn-hòa sī:

  • lead - led - led

M̄-koh nā chí "iân-hòa, ke iân (kim-sio̍k)"--ê ì-sù, tio̍h-sī:

  • lead - leaded - leaded

Ài-ní-lân-gí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí tōng-sû ū nn̄g khoán piàn-hòa, 11-ê put-kui-chek tōng-sû. Kok hong-giân tùi chi̍t-ê put-kui-chhek tōng-sû--ê piàn-hòa khó-lêng ū chha-piat.

  • abair: kóng
  • beir: lia̍h
  • : sī
  • clois/cluin: thiaⁿ
  • déan: chò
  • faigh: the̍h
  • feic: khoàⁿ
  • ith: chia̍h
  • tabhair: (pun-)hō͘
  • tar: lâi
  • téigh: khì

Kî-thaⁿ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ji̍t-gí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Hiān-tāi Ji̍t-gí Piâu-chún-gí--ê tōng-sû piàn-hòa (oa̍h-iōng, 活用), tû-liáu ū-kui-chek--ê gō͘-toāⁿ oa̍h-iōng (五段活用) kap it-toāⁿ oa̍h-iōng (一段活用) hit nn̄g lūi í-gōa, chhun--ê tōng-sû lióng-sī bô kui-chek--ê piàn-keh oa̍h-iōng (変格活用), pí-lūn: 来る (kuru, lâi), 〜する (~suru, kiâⁿ ~).

Tān-sī, tiō-sǹg sī it-toāⁿ tōng-sû, iā sī ū bô chiàu piàn-hòa kui-chek--ê sû.

Chhan-chhiūⁿ いく (iku, kiâⁿ) sī Ka-hâng gō͘-toāⁿ oa̍h-iōng (カ行五段活用) nā chiàu kui-chek kap im-piàn (音便), kòe-khì sî-thài èng-kai sī いいた (iita), m̄-koh che m̄-tio̍h, si̍t-chè-siōng sī いった (itta). とう (tou, thàm-thiaⁿ) nā chiàu Wa-hâng gō͘-toāⁿ oa̍h-iōng kap im-piàn, kòe-khì sî-thài èng-kāi sī とった (totta), tān-sī si̍t-chè-siōng sī とうた (tôta).

Sè-kài-gí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Uī-tio̍h hō͘ ha̍k-si̍p-chiá khah khuài o̍h, chū sè-kè tio̍h kui-tēng jīm-hô tōng-sû lóng ài chiàu kui-chek piàn-hòa, só͘-í bô put-kui-chek tōng-sû.