Ài-ní-lân-gí

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Sú-iōng-chiá hun-pò͘-tô

Ài-ní-lân-gí (Piau-chún Ài-ní-lân-gí: Gaeilge) sī chi̍t-khoán liû-thoân tī Ài-ní-lân-tó--ê Gael-gú (Gaelic), iā sī Ài-ní-lân ê koan-hong gí-giân chi it (Lēng-gōa chit ê sī Eng-gí). Sī chit-ê kok-ka ū le̍k-sú í-lâi liû-thoân siōng kú mā bat sī Éire-tó siōng tōa--ê giân-gí. M̄-koh tùi 19 sè-kí í-lâi, Éire-tó tiō khai-sí í Éng-gí ûi chú-liû. Bó-gú sú-iōng-chiá ū 7 bān goā ê, tē-jī gí-giân iōng-chiá ū 100 bān gōa ê (tī 2016 nî).

Gí-giân--ê miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

"Gaeilge" tī Ài-ní-lân-gí, mā ū Gael-gí--ê ì-sù. Beh te̍k-pia̍t chí Ài-ní-lân-gí--ê sî, siá-chò "Gaeilge na hÉireann".

Gaeilge tī kok hong-giân--ê piàn-thé:

  • Kó͘-gí: Gaoidhealg, Gaedhealg
  • Piau-chún-gí: Gaeilge
  • Hong-giân:
    • Ulster kap Pak Connacht: Gaedhilic, Gaeilic, Gaeilig iah-sī Gaedhlag
    • Lâm Connacht: Gaeilge (í-chá sī Gaedhilge)
    • Munster: Gaedhealaing, Gaoluinn, Gaelainn téng

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí thang hun-chò:

Hō͘ Elizabeth I khoàⁿ--ê Chē giân-gí té-gú-chi̍p (短語集), ū La-teng-gí, Kīn-kó͘ Eng-gí kap Kīn-kó͘ Ài-ní-lân-gí
Ài-ní-lân-gí tī 1871 nî--ê sú-iōng-chiá tē-tô͘
  • Hiān-tāi Éire-gí (Nua-Ghaeilge): Éire Toā Ki-hng, táⁿ-ap Gael-gí--ê kok-bîn kàu-io̍k kap phiau-liû kàu hái-goā--ê tiâu-liû tì-kàu Ài-ní-lân-gî tī 19 sè-kì kín-kín soe-thoè, jî-chhiáⁿ sú-iōng-chiá tuā-poāⁿ tī se-hái-hoāⁿ. M̄-koh tī 19 sè-kí boé khai-sí ū gí-giân ho̍k-heng ūn-tōng. 1983 nî chhòng-li̍p Ài-ní-lân-gí liân-bêng (Conradh na Gaeilge, Gaelic League). Tī Ài-ní-lân-kok to̍k-li̍p āu, chèng-hú thui-sek giân-gí-ê sú-iōng, mā ū chhòng-li̍p Ài-ní-lân-gí Ha̍k-hau, chóng--sī tī Ài-ní-lân-gí Tē-khu (Gaeltacht)--ê bó-gú iōng-chiá--ê lâng-gia̍h iah-sī soe-thoè. Iu-koan hiān-tāi-gí--ê hong-giân chhiáⁿ-khoàⁿ #Hong-giân.

Hong-giân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí tē-khu tē-tô͘

Hiān-tāi chū-jiân hong-giân thang chiàu séng-hūn (cuige, province) hun-chò 3 khoán, ta̍k chióng hong-giân--ê hoat-im, sû-gí, sīm-chí sī bûn-hoat ū bô-kâng.

Leinster Séng ka-tī--ê hong-giân í-keng bia̍t-bô.

Tī 20 sè-kí, Ài-ní-lân chèng-hú thui-chhut su-siá--ê piau-chún-gí "An Caighdeán Oifigiúil", sī kó͘-gí kap chē-chē hông-giân--ê bûn-hoat kap gí-sû--ê kán-hoà iah-sī sio-lām. Tī kàu-io̍k, chèng-hú bûn-su sú-iōng.

Hoat-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí bô-kong-jīm--ê hoat-im piau-chún. Kok-tē--ê hoat-im piau-chún iā bô-kâng.

Chú-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí--ê chú-im chē-chē ū pun khoah-im (ngē-ngo̍k-hoà(硬顎化)) kap ē-im (nńg-ngo̍k-hoà (軟顎化)), im-ūi (音位) siōng chió ū:

Consonant phonemes
Tûn-im Chi̍h-chiam-im Chi̍h-poē-im Siaⁿ-mn̂g-im
Khoah Ē Khoah Ē Khoah Ē
Po̍k-phò-im Bô-siaⁿ t̪ˠ k c
Ū-siaⁿ d̪ˠ ɡ ɟ
Mô͘-chhat-im/
Kīn-im
Bô-siaⁿ ʃ x ç h
Ū-siaⁿ w ɣ j
Phīⁿ-im n̪ˠ ŋ ɲ
Siám-im ɾˠ ɾʲ
Phiⁿ-thong-im l̪ˠ

Bó-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tī Connacht kap Munster--ê hong-giân, toaⁿ-bó-im ū 11--ê im-ūi, siang-bó-im siōng chió ū 4 ê im-ūi:

Toaⁿ-bó-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tāng-im
Tn̂g
a
ɛ
ɪ
ɔ
ʊ
Kheng-im

It-poāⁿ ē piàn-chò /ә/.

Siang-bó-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chì-chió ū /əi/, /əu/, /iə/ kap /uə/.

Tāng-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Connacht hong-giân ū-hun tāng-im, chhù-tāng-im kap kheng-im. Goan-chek-siōng tàng-im tī thâu im-cha̍t.

Jī-bó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chú-iāu ū: a b c d e f g h i l m n o p r s t u, kap piáu-sī tn̄g-bó-im--ê á é í ó ú. J, k, q, v, w, x, y, z iōng tī goā-lâi-gú.

Jī-ha̍p jī-bó (二合字母) ū: bh, ch, dh, fh, gh, mh, ph, sh, th. Í-chá siá-chò: ḃ, ċ, ḋ, ġ, ṁ, ṗ, ṡ, ṫ.

Tùi Kó͘ Ài-ní-lân-gí it-ti̍t kàu 20 sè-kí, thoân-thóng iōng La-teng-jī--ê Gael jī-thé (Cló Gaelach, Gaelic Type) siá.

Jī-bó tha̍k-hoat kok-tē bô-kâng, khah ho̍k-cha̍p, mā ū siá-hoat bô ha̍p kok-tē tha̍k-hoat--ê jī, jû: "deirfiúr" (a-chí).

Gí-hoat[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chú-im kau-thè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Aì-ní-lân-gí kah kî-tha Celtic gí-cho̍k kâng-khoán, ū chú-im kau-thè (consonant mutation)--ê hiān-siōng. Sû-thâu--ê chú-im (ū-sî-á sī ho̍k-ha̍p-sû) ē siū-tio̍h gí-hoat tiâu-kiāⁿ piàn-chò pa̍t-khoán chú-im. Ài-ní-lân gí lāi-té ū nn̄g-chióng kau-thè: jio̍k-im-hòa (弱音化; lenition) kap si̍t-im-hòa (蝕音化; eclipsis).

Jio̍k-im-hòa goân-chek-pió:

Goân jī-bó Kái-piàn-āu jī-bó Goân hoat-im Kái-piàn-āu hoat-im
b bh /bˠ/, /bʲ/ /vˠ/, /vʲ/
c ch /k/, /c/ /x/, /ç/
d dh /d̪ˠ/, /dʲ/ /ɣ/, /ʝ/
f fh /fˠ/, /fʲ/ bô-siaⁿ
g gh /g/, /ɟ/ /ɣ/, /ʝ/
m mh /mˠ/, /mʲ/ /vˠ/, /vʲ/
p ph /mˠ/ /mʲ/ /fˠ/, /fʲ/
s sh
(ts)[1]
/s/ /ʃ/ /h/
(/tˠ/ /tʲ/)[1]
t th /tˠ/ /tʲ/ /h/

Si̍t-im-hòa--ê bió, hoat-seng tī jī-thâu:

Goân-jī-bó Kái-piàn-āu jī-bó
b mb
c gc
d nd
g ng
p bp
t dt
bó-im n-bó-im (lē: na n-úll; [phông-kó sio̍k-keh])

Tû-liáu "ng" tha̍k /ŋ/, "n-bó-im" ke-tha̍k thâu-chêng--ê "n" , kî-tha lóng kan-ta tha̍k ke-tī thâu-chêng--ê jī-bó.

Koh ū jī-thâu ke t (t-prothesis) kap jī-thâu ke h (h-prothesis).

Gí-sū (語序)[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kap Celtic gí-cho̍k--ê kî-thaⁿ gí-giân kâng-khoán, gí-sū sī VSO (Tōng-sû - Chú-gí - Pin-gí) Pí-lūn:

Ólann sé uisce.
Lim-Hun-sek-sek (分析式) i (Iông-sèng) chúi.
I lim chúi.

Chú-im kau-thè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Celtic gí-cho̍k ū chú-im kau-thè--ê te̍k-teng, Ài-ní-lân-gí mā ū. Ū Jio̍k-im hoà (lenition) kap Àm-im-hoà (暗音化, Eclipsis).

Thâu 1 jī sī bó-im--ê sû, ū jī-thâu ke h (H-prothesis), ke t (T-prothesis)--ê hiān-siōng. Jī-thâu ke n sǹg-sī àm-im-hoà.

Hē-sû (系詞)[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí--ê hē-sû "is" (hiān-chāi-sek) iōng-lâi liân 2 ê tāi-sû iah-sī bêng-sû--ê sû-cho͘ (詞組) téng. Kap tōng-sû "bí" thang hoan-chò Eng-gí--ê "be" (sī), m̄-koh Iōng-hoat bô-kâng. Le:

Is duine mé.
[hē-sû] lâng-toaⁿ-sò͘ chú-keh goá.
Goá sī lâng.

Tāi-sû[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tâi-sû ū hun toaⁿ-ho̍k-sò͘, tē 3 jîn-chheng ū hun im-iông, mā koh hun liân-chiap-hêng (conjunctive form) kap hun-lî-hêng (disjunctive form), koh hun ū-bô kiông-tiāu (emphatic)--ê hêng.

Bêng-sû[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bêng-sū ū hun chú-keh (kiam siū-keh), sio̍k-keh (só͘-iú-keh), ú-keh (與格, chiap tī chi̍t-koá kài-sû āu) , ho͘-keh (呼格, kho͘ lâng--ê sî iōng). Mā ū hun toaⁿ-sò͘ kap ho̍k-sò͘ (複數), Im-sèng (陰性) kap iông-sèng (陽性).

Thong-siông sio̍k-keh, ho͘-keh kap chú-keh sio-siâng. Ū 5 khoán piàn-keh (變格), mā ū bô kui-chek--ê bêng-sû. Bô-kâng hong-giân--ê piàn-keh ū lio̍k-á bô-kâng.

Lē:

Tír (thó͘-tē), tē 2 piàn-keh (piau-chún-gí).
Kheh Toaⁿ-sò͘ Ho̍k-sò
Chú-keh tír tíortha tír againn.
Lán ū thó͘-tē.
Hō͘-keh a thír a thíortha A thír!
Thó͘-tē--ah!
Sio̍k-keh tíre tíortha ainm tíre
Thó͘-tē--ê miâ
Ú-keh tír tíortha ag tír
tī thó͘-tē.

Koān-sû[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Éire-gí chí ū 2 ê tēng-koān-sû (定冠詞): "an" (toā-pō͘-hūn toāⁿ-sò͘) kap "na" (Ho̍k-sò͘ kap toaⁿ-sò͘ sio̍k-keh im-sèng bêng-sû). Lē:

  • An bhean (chit-ê cha-bó͘)
  • Poblacht "na' hÉireann" ("Ài-ní-lân" kiōng-hô-kok)
  • Na cailíní (Chia-ê cha-bó͘-gín-á)

Tong-sû Piàn-hoà[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ài-ní-lân-gí sī khut-chiat-gí (屈折語), tōng-sû--ê bóe-liu ū chē-chē--ê piàn-hoà. Ài-ní-lân-gí ū 11--ê put-kui-chek tōng-sû, 2 khoán tōng-sû piàn-hoà. Bô-kâng hong-giân--ê tōng-sû piàn-hoà ū khó-lêng bô-kâng.

Hêng-iông-sû[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Hêng-iông-sû ū hun-choè goân-ki̍p (原級) kap pí-kàu-ki̍p. Hêng-iông-sû piàn-hoà siū-tio̍h bêng-sû--ê keh, toaⁿ-ho̍k-sò͘, im-iông-sèng, kiông/jio̍k-bêng-sû (strong/weak noun) téng éng-hióng.

Kài-sû[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chi̍t-koá kài-sû ū jîn-chheng--ê piàn-hoà kap ū-bô kiông-tiāu (emphatic)--ê piàn-hoà.

Tāi-chiōng mûi-thé[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tiān-sī-tâi[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tiān-tâi[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Té-kù[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Í-hā--ê té-kù iōng piau-chún Ài-ní-lân-gí siá:

  • Dia duit: Lí hó.
  • Séan is ainm dom: Goá kiò-chò Séan (Iok-hān).
  • Tá fáilte romhat: Hoan-gêng--lí / (Lí) bián kheh-khì.
  • Go raibh maith agat: To-siā--lí.
  • Slán: Chài-hoē.

Chù-kha[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "ts" iōng tī thâu-chêng chiap koàn-sû--ê pō͘-hūn s- khí-thâu--ê im-sèng bêng-sû iōng.