To̍k tshí-khún sik-im

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To̍k tshí-khún sik-im [en]
d
IPA pian-hō 104
pian-bé
HTML bé cha̍p-chìn-ūi d
Unicode cha̍p-la̍k-chìn-ūi U+0064
X-SAMPA Im-piau d
ASCII Im-piau d
siaⁿ-im
Tso̍k khí sat-im
IPA pian-hō 104 408
pian-bé
HTML bé cha̍p-chìn-ūi d​̪
Unicode cha̍p-la̍k-chìn-ūi U+0064 U+032A
X-SAMPA Im-piau d_d
ASCII Im-piau d[
siaⁿ-im

To̍k tshí-khún sik-im [en] (ing-gú: voiced alveolar plosives; tso̍k khí-gûn sat-im), khí sat-im [en] (ing-gú: dental plosives) hām āu khí-gûn sat-im [en] (ing-gú: postalveolar plosives histsia po̍k-im [en] (stops)) sī tsiâñ-tsē kháu-gú lāi-té sú-iōng ê hù-im luī-hîng. Kok-tsè im-piau lāi-té tāi-piáu tso̍k-khí im [en], khí-gûn im [en], hām khí-gûn āu [en]-sat-im [en] ê hû-hō sī ⟨d⟩ (sui-bóng hû-hō ⟨d̪⟩ ē-tàng iōng-teh khu-hun khí-sat-im, lî-tshiáñ ⟨d̠⟩ ē-tàng iōng-teh khu-hun āu khí-tsô im), í-kip tíng-kè ê X- SAMPA [en] hû-hō uî ⟨d⟩. Kan-na u tsió-sòo kuí-tsióng gú-gên ē-tàng khu-hun gê-khí hā gê-tsô po̍k-im, pí-jū: Kota-gú [en], Toda-gú [en], Venda-gú hām tsi̍t-kuá-á Gaeilge-gú Irish gú-gên sī kî-tiong ê tsi̍t-sió pōo-hūn.

Tsham-khó bûn-hèn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

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  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895868434 
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second pán.), Blackwell 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", chū Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sound, Cambridge University Press 
  • Mahootian, Shahrzad (1997), Persian, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02311-4 
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th pán.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
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  • Padluzhny, Ped (1989), Fanetyka belaruskai litaraturnai movy, ISBN 5-343-00292-7 
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Tsham-ua̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Guā-pōo lên-ket[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

IPA ê chú-imchart image • Loudspeaker.svg audio
pō͘-ūi → tûn chi̍h-koan chi̍h-bīn chi̍h-kūn
↓ hng-hoat siang-tûn tûn-khí chi̍h-tûn khí khí-gûn gûn-āu koàn-chi̍h gûn-kok ngē-kok nńg-kok siáu-chi̍h ian hoē-iàn
phīⁿ m ɱ n̼̊ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ̥ ɴ
sat p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
ū si sat-chhat ts dz ʈʂ ɖʐ
bô si sat-chhat p̪f b̪v tθ̠ dð̠ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ɢʁ ʡħ ʡʕ ʔh
ū si chhat s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
bô si chhat ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ ʔ̞
kīn ɸ˕ ʋ θ̞ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ
siám ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̮
chùn ʙ r ɽr̥ ɽr ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
pian sat-chhat ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̥˔ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
pian chhat ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ʎ̥˔ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
pian kīn l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ ʟ̠
pian siám ɺ̼ ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̮ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
kán-tan tap-chhùi ʘ ʘ̬ ʘ̃ ǀ ǀ̬ ǀ̃ ǃ ǃ̬ ǃ̃
ǂ ǂ̬ ǂ̃ ǁ ǁ̬ ǁ̃ ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǃ̃˞
kî-thaⁿ tap-chhùi ʘ̃ˀ ʘˀ ˀʘ̃ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qχ ʘ͡qʼ ʘ͡qχʼ ¡ ʞ
loē-po̍k ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥ 
chek-âu ʈʼ ʡʼ
θʼ ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
tsʼ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ tɕʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Co-articulated consonants
chhî-sio̍k ʍ w ɥ̊ ɥ ɫ
pì-ha̍p k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m ɧ
t͡p d͡b n͡m q͡ʡ
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible or not distinctive.