Sù-hong an-choân tùi-ōe

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Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

Australia, India, Japan, and the United States are highlighted in blue. Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe intended for the Quadrilateral to establish an "Asian Arc of Democracy".
Kán-chheng Quad
Kiàn-li̍p sî-kan 2007 (1st time); lasted until 2008
2017 (re-established after negotiations in November)
Lūi-hêng Inter-governmental security forum[1][2]

States in the Dialogue:

Quad Plus additional members

Sù-hong An-choân tùi-ōe (Quadrilateral Security Dialogue,QSD, also known as the Quad).

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Dr. John Hemmings. "Should the Quad Become a Formal Alliance?". Official United States Air Force Website. So, to summarize, we can say clearly that the Quad is not an alliance because it does not rest on a principle of collective defense and its members do not anticipate or expect that. 
  2. "It's clearer to India than ever that Quad is no military alliance. Everything's a bit AUKUS". The print. 21 September 2021.