Bí-kok choân-kok pō͘-chhèng hia̍p-hōe

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Bí-kok tsuân-kok pōo-tshìng hia̍p-huē
(National Rifle Association of America)
Chhòng-sí sî-kan 1871 nî 11 goe̍h 17 ji̍t;
150 nî í-chêng
​ (1871-11-17)
Chhòng-sí-jîn William Conant Church
George Wood Wingate
Lūi-hêng 501(c)(4)[1]
53-0116130
Chū-chiau Gun politics
Gun rights
Tē-tiám
Ho̍k-bū khu-e̍k
Bíkok
Ho̍k-bū İû-suat ua̍h-tāng [en]
Huē-uân tsoo-tsit
Tsa̍p-tsì tshut-pán-siong
Kàu-io̍k/jīn-tsìng
Hong-hoat İû-suat ua̍h-tāng [en]
Tshut-pán-bu̍t [en]
Guē-tén [en] kè-uē
Hōe-goân
Tsiong-kīn 5.5 pah-bān (tsū-ngóo pò-kò)[lower-alpha 1][2]
Chú-iàu jîn-bu̍t
Charles L. Cotton (President)
Wayne LaPierre (CEO hām Tsip-hîng hù-tsóng-tshâi)
Hun-ki ki-kò͘ NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund
NRA Foundation
NRA Special Contribution Fund
NRA Freedom Action Foundation
NRA Institute for Legislative Action
NRA Political Victory Fund
Siu-ji̍p (2018)
$412,233,508[2]
Khai-chi (2018) $423,034,158[2]
Bāng-chām NRA.org

Bí-kok tsuân-kok pōo-tshìng hia̍p-huē (ing-gí: National Rifle Association (NRA)), kan-tshing NRA, koh huan-i̍k tsò "Bí-kok rifle-tshìng hia̍p-huē"[3][4][lower-alpha 2], sī bí-kok ê tsi̍t-ê hui îng-lī-sìng bîn-kuân tsoo-tsit [en]; mā hông jīm-uî sī tén-hîng ê lī-ik thuân-thé [en].

NRA tsi-tshî Bí-kok jîn-kuân huat-àn [en] ê "Hèn-huat tē-2 siu-tsìng-àn", pīng-tshiáñ jīm-uî tshî-iú tshìng-ki [en] iōng-tsò tsū-ngóo hông-uē sī ta̍k-ê Bí-kok kong-bîn [en] ing-kai hiáng-siū ê kong-bîn kuân-lī [en]. Kin-kù 1999-nî Tsâi-hù tsa̍p-tsì [en] ê tsi̍t-ê tiau-tsa, tuā-tә-sò Bí-kok kok-huē gī-uân hām kang-tsok jîn-guân jīm-uî: NRA sī tī Bí-kok siōng-ū íng-hióng-li̍k ê iû-suat ua̍h-tāng [en]. NRA sóo khai-tén ê it-tshè tsìng-tī ua̍h-tāng sī-í "Hèn-huat tē-2 siu-tsìng àn" uî lí-lūn i-kù, pīng-tshiáñ tsik-ki̍k tâu-sin teh kok-hāng iú-kuan uī-hóo kong-bîn "tshî-tshìng kuân-lī" (bûn-tsong kuân-lī) ê tsìng-tī ūn-tōng.

Tsù-sek[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. Estimates range from 3.4 to 6 million see membership
  2. More gun rights sources:
    • Carter, Greg Lee (2006). Gun Control in the United States: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 285. ISBN 978-1851097609. Almost all of [the groups listed] are readily classifiable as either advocating a 'gun control' or a 'gun rights' position. 
    • Knox, Neal (2009). Knox, Christopher, pian. Neal Knox: The Gun Rights War. MacFarlane Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0976863304. One of the few advantages—possibly the only advantage—that supporters of gun rights hold is the fact that there are more one-issue voters on the pro-gun side than on the anti-gun side. 
    • Patterson, Samuel C.; Eakins, Keith R. (1998). "Congress and Gun Control". Chū Bruce, John M.; Wilcox, Clyde. The Changing Politics of Gun Control. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0847686155. OCLC 833118449. April 8, 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. During the gun control legislation battles of the 1960s, the NRA, although it had no registered lobbyists, was the most powerful gun rights organization. It still enjoys this distinction, although it has undergone significant change. 
    • Utter, Glenn H. (2011). Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights. Grey House. ISBN 978-1592376728. 
    • Wellford, Charles F; Pepper, John V; Petrie, Carol V, pian. (2013) [Print ed. 2005]. Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review (Electronic pán.). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. p. 283. doi:10.17226/10881. ISBN 978-0309546409. Another commentator pointed out, however, that a significant number of the articles supporting the individual right model published between 1970 and 1989 were written by lawyers who had either been employed by or who represented gun rights organizations, including the NRA.  Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.

Tsù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. "National Rifle Association". ProPublica.  (Eng-gí)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Gutowski, Stephen (May 30, 2019). "NRA Membership Dues, Contributions Rebounded In 2018". The Washington Free Beacon.  (Eng-gí)
  3. Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.  (Eng-gí)
  4. Carter, Gregg Lee, pian. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. June 6, 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.  (Eng-gí)

Ên-sin ua̍t-to̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Su-tsik[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Tsa̍p-tsì bûn-tsiuñ[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Lacombe, Matthew J. (2019). "The Political Weaponization of Gun Owners: The National Rifle Association's Cultivation, Dissemination, and Use of a Group Social Identity". The Journal of Politics. 81 (4): 1342–56. doi:10.1086/704329.  (Eng-gí)

Sin-bûn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Tsham-ua̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Guā-pōo lên-ket[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

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