Virginia

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Map of USA highlighting Virginia.png

VirginiaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húRichmond. Siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Virginia Beach.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Virginia ê tang-pêng kap pak-pêng sī Washington, D.C. kap Maryland; lâm-pên sī North Carolina; sai-lâm-pêng sī Tennessee; sai-pêng sī Kentucky; pak-pêng kiam sai-pêng sī West Virginia. Lēng-gōa óa tang-pêng ê hái sī Tāi-se-iûⁿ

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ū khó-kó͘ gián-kiù hoat-àn Pocahontas Island (chi̍t-ê poàn-tó tē-hng) tī Chêng 6500 chiō ū lâng khiā-khí.

Tong Eng-lân khún-hō͘ tī 1607 nî tú lâi-kàu Jamestown ê sî, tī Virgina chúi-chhiâng-sòaⁿ (fall line, chi̍t khoán tē-lí hun-kài) tang-pêng tōa-hūn thó͘-tē lóng sī Algonquin pō͘-cho̍k khòng-chè ê só͘-chāi. In sī liân-ha̍p tī le̍k-sú-ha̍k siōng só͘ kóng ê Powhatan Pang-liân ē-té, he̍k-chiá kóng sī chi̍t-ê "tè-kok". Siú-léng Wahunsunacock tī 16 sè-kí bóe kàu 17 sè-kí chheh cheng-ho̍k kiam liân-ha̍p liáu tāi-khài saⁿ-cha̍p-ê pō͘-lo̍k, che siú-léng hông kiò chò sī Powhatan, i chheng só͘ khòng-chè ê thó͘-tē sī Tenakomakah.

Virginia si̍t-bîn-tē sī 1607 nî Lûn-tun Kong-si (London Company) kiàn-li̍p--ê.[1]

Tāi-eng-kok Kok-hōe tī tùi Hoat-kok kap Ìn-tò͘ ê chiàn-chéng liáu-āu hiòng si̍t-bîn-tē ka-kiông tin-sòe, ín-khí chia só͘-chāi ê put-boán. Tong-sî Patrick Henry kap Richard Henry Lee téng gī-oân chhōa-thâu ê Kong-bîn-hōe (House of Burgesses) chiō sī hoán-tùi sin sòe-kim chè-tō͘--ê. 1773 nî, Virginia lâng khai-sí kap pa̍t chiu cho͘-chit in hêng-tông. 1774 nî in phài tāi-piáu chham-ka Tāi-lio̍k Hōe-gī, tong-nî Kong-bîn-hōe hō͘ ông-ka phài ê chóng-tok kái-sàn, kek-bēng-phài ê thâu-lâng chiō keng-kòe Virgina Tāi-hōe (Virginia Conventions) î-chhî koán-lí. Kàu 1776 nî ê sî, Tāi-hōe soan-pò͘ Virginia tùi Tāi-eng Tè-kok to̍k-li̍p, chhái-ēng George Mason ê Virginia Khoân-lī Soan-giân (Virginia Declaration of Rights). Lēng-gōa chi̍t ūi Virginia lâng Thomas Jefferson āu--lâi koh chìn-chi̍t-pō͘ khí-chhó liáu Bí-kok ê To̍k-li̍p Soan-giân.

Lōe-chiàn chìn-chêng, Virginia tû-liáu tī lông-gia̍p siōng, ùi khòng-gia̍p ê lô͘-lē sú-iōng mā tng teh chin-ka. 1800 nî. Hit chūn mā sán-seng lô͘-lē hóng-khòng oa̍h-tāng, pau-koat chhiūⁿ Gabriel Prosser tī 1800 nî, Nat Turner tī 1831 nî, kap John Brow tī 1859 nî, hun-pia̍t niá-chhōa liáu po̍k-tōng sū-kiāⁿ. Kàu 1860 nî ê sî, tāi-khài chiâⁿ pah bān, chiàu beh 31% ê Virginia jîn-kháu sī lô͘-lē.

1861 nî 4 goe̍h 17 ji̍t, Virginia tâu-phiò koat-tēng thoat-lî Bí-kok. Kàu 4 goe̍h 24, in ka-ji̍p America Pang-liân-kok, tong-sî Pang-liân siú-hú chiō siat tī Virginia ê Richmond. Chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu, tī 1870 nî, keng-kòe Kiú-jîn Úi-oân-hōe (Committee of Nine) ê ūn-chok, Virginia chèng-sek tó-tńg Bí-kok.

Virginia chhut-sin ê James Albert Bonsack tī 1880 nî hoat-bêng liáu kńg ta-bá-koh chóa-hun ê ke-khì, niá-chhōa liáu Richmond ê chi̍t kái kang-gia̍p hoat-tián. Kàu 1886 nî ê sî, thih-lō͘ si̍t-gia̍p-ka Collis Potter Huntington kiàn-li̍p khí Newport News Shipbuilding chō-chûn-só͘, che kang-tiûⁿ té-bé tī tâu-jip It-chhù Tāi-chià chêng-āu Bí-kok Hái-kun chiàn-lām ê seng-sán.

1951 nî tī Farmville, Barbara Rose Johns hoat-tōng hoán-khòng chéng-cho̍k keh-lî ha̍k-hāu ê ūn-tōng, ín-khí Davis tùi Prince Edward Kūn ê Kūn Ha̍k-hāu Lí-sū-hōe (Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County) koaⁿ-si. Àn-kiāⁿ tī 1954 nî keng-kòe Brown tùi Kàu-io̍k Lí-sū-hōe (Brown v. Board of Education) àn khak-tēng, kī-choa̍t liáu keh-lî-phài tùi "hûn-lî m̄-koh pêng-téng" ê chú-tiuⁿ. 1960 nî-tāi oa̍h-hiáⁿ ê Kong-bîn Khoân-lī Ūn-tōng, ín-chhōa liáu Bí-kok chē hāng choân-kok-sèng ê hoat-àn. Tī 1964 nî, Bí-kok Chòe-ko Hoat-īⁿ bēng-lēng Prince Edward Kūn téng tē-hng ài hòe-tû keh-lî-sek ha̍k-hāu.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Virginia tī 2015 nî ê GDP sī 481,084 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[2] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng-kang ê sán-gia̍p sī sió-bē-gia̍p.[3]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Grant, Susan-Mary (2012). A Concise History of the United States of America. Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780521612791. 
  2. "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Virginia". FRED. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 2016-12-07. 2017-04-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-03-11 khòaⁿ--ê.