Virginia

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Virginia Kiōng-êng-kok
Commonwealth of Virginia
Navy blue flag with the circular Seal of Virginia centered on it. A circular seal with the words "Virginia" on the top and "Sic Semper Tyrannis" on the bottom. In the center, a woman wearing a blue toga and Athenian helmet stands on the chest of dead man wearing a purple breastplate and skirt. The woman holds a spear and sheathed sword. The man holds a broken chain while his crown lies away from the figures. Orange leaves encircle the seal.
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: "Old Dominion", "Mother of Presidents and the Mother of Statesmen"
Piau-gí: Sic semper tyrannis
(English: Thus Always to Tyrants)[1]
Virginia is located on the Atlantic coast along the line that divides the northern and southern halves of the United States. It runs mostly east to west. It includes a small peninsula across a bay which is discontinuous with the rest of the state.
Koan-hong gí-giân Eng-gí
Liû-thong gí-giân Eng-gí 85.87%,
Se-pan-gâ-gí 6.41%
Kî-tha 7.72%
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Virginian
Siú-hú Richmond
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Virginia Beach
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Washington tō͘-chhī-khu
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-35
 • Ha̍p-kè 42,774.2 sq mi
(110,785.67 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 200 lí (320 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 430 lí (690 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 7.4
 • Hūi-tō͘ 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-12
 • Ha̍p-kè 8,411,808 (2016 est.)[2]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 206.7/sq mi  (79.8/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-14
 • Hō͘-kháu siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $61,486[3] (tē-14)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Mount Rogers[4][5]
5,729 ft (1746 m)
 • Pêng-kin 950 ft  (290 m)
 • Kē-tiám Tāi-se-iûⁿ[4]
sea level
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Virginia Si̍t-bîn-tē
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1788 nî 6 goe̍h 25 (10th)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Ralph Northam (D)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Justin Fairfax (D)
Li̍p-hoat Gī-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-hōe
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-hōe
Chham-gī-goân Mark Warner (D)
Tim Kaine (D)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 7-ê Kiōng-hô-thóng,
4-ê Bîn-chú-thóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Eastern: UTC −5/−4
ISO 3166 US-VA
Kán-siá VA, Va.
Bāng-chām www.virginia.gov

VirginiaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húRichmond. Siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Virginia Beach.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Virginia ê tang-pêng kap pak-pêng sī Washington, D.C. kap Maryland; lâm-pên sī North Carolina; sai-lâm-pêng sī Tennessee; sai-pêng sī Kentucky; pak-pêng kiam sai-pêng sī West Virginia. Lēng-gōa óa tang-pêng ê hái sī Tāi-se-iûⁿ

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ū khó-kó͘ gián-kiù hoat-àn Pocahontas Island (chi̍t-ê poàn-tó tē-hng) tī Chêng 6500 chiō ū lâng khiā-khí.

Tong Eng-lân khún-hō͘ tī 1607 nî tú lâi-kàu Jamestown ê sî, tī Virgina chúi-chhiâng-sòaⁿ (fall line, chi̍t khoán tē-lí hun-kài) tang-pêng tōa-hūn thó͘-tē lóng sī Algonquin pō͘-cho̍k khòng-chè ê só͘-chāi. In sī liân-ha̍p tī le̍k-sú-ha̍k siōng só͘ kóng ê Powhatan Pang-liân ē-té, he̍k-chiá kóng sī chi̍t-ê "tè-kok". Siú-léng Wahunsunacock tī 16 sè-kí bóe kàu 17 sè-kí chheh cheng-ho̍k kiam liân-ha̍p liáu tāi-khài saⁿ-cha̍p-ê pō͘-lo̍k, che siú-léng hông kiò chò sī Powhatan, i chheng só͘ khòng-chè ê thó͘-tē sī Tenakomakah.

Virginia si̍t-bîn-tē sī 1607 nî Lûn-tun Kong-si (London Company) kiàn-li̍p--ê.[6]

Tāi-eng-kok Kok-hōe tī tùi Hoat-kok kap Ìn-tò͘ ê chiàn-chéng liáu-āu hiòng si̍t-bîn-tē ka-kiông tin-sòe, ín-khí chia só͘-chāi ê put-boán. Tong-sî Patrick Henry kap Richard Henry Lee téng gī-oân chhōa-thâu ê Kong-bîn-hōe (House of Burgesses) chiō sī hoán-tùi sin sòe-kim chè-tō͘--ê. 1773 nî, Virginia lâng khai-sí kap pa̍t chiu cho͘-chit in hêng-tông. 1774 nî in phài tāi-piáu chham-ka Tāi-lio̍k Hōe-gī, tong-nî Kong-bîn-hōe hō͘ ông-ka phài ê chóng-tok kái-sàn, kek-bēng-phài ê thâu-lâng chiō keng-kòe Virgina Tāi-hōe (Virginia Conventions) î-chhî koán-lí. Kàu 1776 nî ê sî, Tāi-hōe soan-pò͘ Virginia tùi Tāi-eng Tè-kok to̍k-li̍p, chhái-ēng George Mason ê Virginia Khoân-lī Soan-giân (Virginia Declaration of Rights). Lēng-gōa chi̍t ūi Virginia lâng Thomas Jefferson āu--lâi koh chìn-chi̍t-pō͘ khí-chhó liáu Bí-kok ê To̍k-li̍p Soan-giân.

Lōe-chiàn chìn-chêng, Virginia tû-liáu tī lông-gia̍p siōng, ùi khòng-gia̍p ê lô͘-lē sú-iōng mā tng teh chin-ka. 1800 nî. Hit chūn mā sán-seng lô͘-lē hóng-khòng oa̍h-tāng, pau-koat chhiūⁿ Gabriel Prosser tī 1800 nî, Nat Turner tī 1831 nî, kap John Brow tī 1859 nî, hun-pia̍t niá-chhōa liáu po̍k-tōng sū-kiāⁿ. Kàu 1860 nî ê sî, tāi-khài chiâⁿ pah bān, chiàu beh 31% ê Virginia jîn-kháu sī lô͘-lē.

1861 nî 4 goe̍h 17 ji̍t, Virginia tâu-phiò koat-tēng thoat-lî Bí-kok. Kàu 4 goe̍h 24, in ka-ji̍p America Pang-liân-kok, tong-sî Pang-liân siú-hú chiō siat tī Virginia ê Richmond. Chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu, tī 1870 nî, keng-kòe Kiú-jîn Úi-oân-hōe (Committee of Nine) ê ūn-chok, Virginia chèng-sek tó-tńg Bí-kok.

Virginia chhut-sin ê James Albert Bonsack tī 1880 nî hoat-bêng liáu kńg ta-bá-koh chóa-hun ê ke-khì, niá-chhōa liáu Richmond ê chi̍t kái kang-gia̍p hoat-tián. Kàu 1886 nî ê sî, thih-lō͘ si̍t-gia̍p-ka Collis Potter Huntington kiàn-li̍p khí Newport News Shipbuilding chō-chûn-só͘, che kang-tiûⁿ té-bé tī tâu-jip It-chhù Tāi-chià chêng-āu Bí-kok Hái-kun chiàn-lām ê seng-sán.

1951 nî tī Farmville, Barbara Rose Johns hoat-tōng hoán-khòng chéng-cho̍k keh-lî ha̍k-hāu ê ūn-tōng, ín-khí Davis tùi Prince Edward Kūn ê Kūn Ha̍k-hāu Lí-sū-hōe (Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County) koaⁿ-si. Àn-kiāⁿ tī 1954 nî keng-kòe Brown tùi Kàu-io̍k Lí-sū-hōe (Brown v. Board of Education) àn khak-tēng, kī-choa̍t liáu keh-lî-phài tùi "hûn-lî m̄-koh pêng-téng" ê chú-tiuⁿ. 1960 nî-tāi oa̍h-hiáⁿ ê Kong-bîn Khoân-lī Ūn-tōng, ín-chhōa liáu Bí-kok chē hāng choân-kok-sèng ê hoat-àn. Tī 1964 nî, Bí-kok Chòe-ko Hoat-īⁿ bēng-lēng Prince Edward Kūn téng tē-hng ài hòe-tû keh-lî-sek ha̍k-hāu.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Virginia tī 2015 nî ê GDP sī 481,084 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[7] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng-kang ê sán-gia̍p sī sió-bē-gia̍p.[8]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "Factpack" (PDF). Virginia General Assembly. January 11, 2007. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī October 28, 2008 hőng khó͘-pih. October 14, 2008 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. June 22, 2017 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 9, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. goân-loē-iông tī November 2, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. October 24, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  6. Grant, Susan-Mary (2012). A Concise History of the United States of America. Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780521612791. 
  7. "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Virginia". FRED. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 2016-12-07. 2017-04-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  8. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-03-11 khòaⁿ--ê.