Indiana

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Indiana Chiu
State of Indiana
Flag of Indiana State seal of Indiana
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: The Hoosier State
Piau-gí: The Crossroads of America ("Bí-kok ê Si̍p-jī-lō͘-kháu")
Chiu-koa: "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away"
Map of the United States with Indiana highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân Eng-gí
Liû-thong gí-giân Eng-gí, Se-pan-gâ-gí, kî-tha giân-gí
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Hoosier
Siú-hú
(kiam siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī)
Indianapolis
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Greater Indianapolis
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-38
 • Ha̍p-kè 36,418 sq mi
(94,321 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 140 lí (225 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 270 lí (435 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 1.5
 • Hūi-tō͘ 37° 46′ N to 41° 46′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 84° 47′ W to 88° 6′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-17
 • Ha̍p-kè 6,691,878 (2018)
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 183/sq mi  (70.7/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-16
 • Hō͘-kháu siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $51,983 [1] (tē-35)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Hoosier Hill[2][3]
1,257 ft (383 m)
 • Pêng-kin 700 ft  (210 m)
 • Kē-tiám Ohio Khe kap Wabash Khe sio-tú-tiám[2][3]
320 ft (97 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Indiana Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p D1816 nî 12 goe̍h 11 (tē-19)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Eric Holcomb (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Suzanne Crouch (R)
Li̍p-hoat Chóng Chi̍p-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Indiana Goân-ló-hōe
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Indiana Tāi-piáu-hōe
Chham-gī-goân Todd Young (R)
Mike Braun (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 7-ê Kiōng-hô-tóng,
2-ê Bîn-chú-tóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu  
 • 80 kūn Eastern: UTC −5/−4
 • 12 kūn Central: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166 US-IN
Kán-siá IN, Ind.
Bāng-chām www.in.gov

IndianaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Indianapolis sī i ê siú-hú kap siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Indiana ê ì-sù sī "Indian lâng ê Thó͘-tē", ia̍h kán-tan kóng "Indian Kok".[4] Che khí-goân chū Indiana chò léng-thó ê le̍k-sú. 1800 nî 5 goe̍h 7 ji̍t, Bí-kok Kok-hōe thong-kòe li̍p-hoat-àn, kā Sai-pak Léng-thó͘ koah chò nn̄g hūn, hō sai-pêng hit hūn sī Indian Léng-thó͘. Tī 1816 nî, Kok-hōe leh thong-kòe chi̍t hāng Sūi-khoân Hoat-àn (Enabling Act) beh khai-sí kā Indian kiàn-li̍p chò chiu-hūn ê sî, goân léng-thó͘ ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn pìⁿ chò beh li̍p sin chiu ê tē-khu.[5][6][7]

Koan-hong kā Indian ê chū-bîn hō chò Hoosier.[8] Chit jī ê gí-goân iáu koh bô chheng-hó, chóng nā chiàu Indiana Le̍k-sú Kio̍k (Indiana Historical Bureau) kap Indiana Le̍k-sú Hia̍p-hōe (Indiana Historical Society) chàn-sêng ê chú-liû lí-lūn, "Hoosier" ê lâi-goân sī Virginia, Carolina, kap Tennessee (Upland South tē-khu) kóng ê "nâ-á-tē-lâng" (backwoodsman), chháu-tē-lâng ê ì-sù.[9][10]

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Angel Mounds Chiu-li̍p Le̍k-sú Tē-tiám sī siāng óa pak ê Mississippi bûn-hòa chū-lo̍h chi it, sî-tāi sio̍k 1100 nî chì 1450 nî kan.

Kó͘-Indian lângChêng 8000 nî ê sî toh lâi kài chit-ê só͘-chāi, he tng sī Pêng-hô Sî-tāi tú soah, pêng-hô iûⁿ--khì liáu-āu. In pun-sòaⁿ chò sè tīn kûn-thé, chia-ê Kó͘-Indian sī iû-bo̍k-bîn, thang lia̍h pí-lūn mastodon (chi̍t khoán kó͘-chhiūⁿ) téng tōng-bu̍t. In iā lī-ēng kak-gâm (chert), keng-kòe phut (chipping), kòng (knapping), kap phoe (flaking) ê hong-hoat chè-chō chio̍h-thâu ke-si.[11]

1679 nî, Hoat-kok thàm-hiám-ka René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle chò thâu-chi̍t-ê kòe Indian ê Au-chiu-lâng, khì kàu kin-á-ji̍t ê South Bend, tī leh Saint Joseph Khe piⁿ.[12] I kè-tang koh tńg hit-ūi liáu-kái tē-hng. Hoat-kok-hē Ka-ná-tah-lâng ê mô͘-phôe seng-lí-lâng bô lōa kú mā lâi kàu ūi, the̍h nâ-á, chu-pó, ke-si, whiskey kap bú-khì khì kap Bí-chiu Goân-chū-bîn ka-e̍k phôe-mn̂g.

1702 nî ê hit-chūn, Sieur Juchereau ūi Vincennes hū-kīn kiàn-li̍p khí thâu chi̍t keng bō͘-e̍k-chām. Tī 1715 nî, Sieur de Vincennes khí-siat Fort Miami tī leh Kekionga, tiō sī chit-má ê Fort Wayne. Chì 1717 nî, lēng-gōa chi̍t-ê Ka-ná-tah-lâng Picote de Beletre, mā siat Fort OuiatenonWabash Khe piⁿ, chhì beh khòng-chè Bí-chiu Goân-chū-bîn tùi Erie Ô͘ khì kàu Mississippi Kang ê bō͘-e̍k lō͘-sòaⁿ.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Indiana tī 2015 nî ê GDP sī 336,053 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[13] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē jîn-kang ê sán-gia̍p sī chè-chō-gia̍p.[14]

Indiana tī 2015 nî kui tang ê n̂g-tāu sán-liōng ū 7.5 pa̍h-bān tòng.[15]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 9, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. October 21, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  4. An earlier use of the name dates to the 1760s, when it referenced a tract of land under control of the Commonwealth of Virginia, but the area's name was discarded when it became a part of that state. See Hodgin, Cyrus (1903). "The Naming of Indiana" (pdf transcription). Papers of the Wayne County, Indiana, Historical Society. 1 (1): 3–11. January 23, 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. A portion of the Northwest Territory's eastern section became the state of Ohio in 1803. The Michigan Territory was established in 1805 from part of the Indiana Territory's northern lands and four years later, in 1809, the Illinois counties were separated from the Indiana Territory to create the Illinois Territory. See John D. Barnhart; Dorothy L. Riker (1971). Indiana to 1816: The Colonial Period. The History of Indiana. I. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society. pp. 311–13,337, 353, 355, and 432. 
  6. Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) pán.). Houghton Mifflin. p. 191. 
  7. Hodgin, Cyrus (1903). "The Naming of Indiana" (pdf transcriptionaccessdate=2014-1-16). Papers of the Wayne County, Indiana, Historical Society. 1 (1): 3–11. 
  8. Groppe, Maureen. "Finally, the federal government agrees: We're Hoosiers". The Indianapolis Star. January 12, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. Haller, Steve (Fall 2008). "The Meanings of Hoosier: 175 Years and Counting" (PDF). Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. 20 (4): 5 and 6. ISSN 1040-788X. January 23, 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. Graf, Jeffery. "The Word Hoosier". Indiana University – Bloomington. February 27, 2012 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  11. "Prehistoric Indians of Indiana" (PDF). State of Indiana. July 5, 2009 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  12. Allison, p. 17.
  13. "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Indiana". FRED. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 2016-12-07. 2017-03-11 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-03-11 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  15. "U.S. Yield & Production: Production by State". SoyStats. The American Soybean Association. 2017-02-16 khòaⁿ--ê.