Louisiana

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Louisiana Chiu
State of Louisiana
État de Louisiane  (Hoat-gí)
Flag of Louisiana State seal of Louisiana
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: Bayou State • Child of the Mississippi
Creole State • Pelican State (official)
Sportsman's Paradise • Sugar State • The Boot
Piau-gí: Union, Justice, Confidence
Map of the United States with Louisiana highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân Bô koan-hong gí-giân
Liû-thong gí-giân

2007 nî ûi-chí

Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Louisianian
Siú-hú Baton Rouge
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī New Orleans[1][2][3]
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Tōa New Orleans
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-31
 • Ha̍p-kè 50,000 sq mi
(135,382 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 130 lí (210 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 379 lí (610 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 15
 • Hūi-tō͘ 28° 56′ N to 33° 01′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 88° 49′ W to 94° 03′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ 25th
 • Ha̍p-kè 4,681,666 (2015 nî ko͘)[4]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 93.6/sq mi  (34.6/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-24
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $45,992[5] (45th)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Driskill Mountain[6][7]
535 ft (163 m)
 • Pêng-kin 100 ft  (30 m)
 • Kē-tiám New Orleans[6][7]
−8 ft (−2.5 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Orleans Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1812 nî 4 goe̍h 30 ji̍t (tē-18)
Chiu-tiúⁿ John Bel Edwards (D)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Billy Nungesser (R)
Li̍p-hoat Chiu Li̍p-hoat-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân John Neely Kennedy (R)
Bill Cassidy (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 5-ê Kiōng-hô-tóng, 1-ê Bîn-chú-tóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Central: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166 US-LA
Kán-siá LA, La.
Bāng-chām louisiana.gov

LouisianaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húBaton Rouge, siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī New Orleans.

Hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Louisiana sī tùi Hoat-kok kok-ông Louis 14-sè hō--lâi-ê. Chi̍t khai-sí chú-tiūⁿ Mississippi Hô tē-khu léng-thó͘ ê René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, sī hō La Louisiane.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Louisiana ê sai-pêng sī Texas, pak-pêng sī Arkansas, tang-pêng sī Mississippi, lâm-pêng óa tī Be̍k-se-ko Oan

Chhiong-chek tē-he̍k, pau-koat kē làm-tē, hái-kîⁿ tâm-tē kap hái-sòaⁿ, chiàm kui chiu 52,000 pêng-hong kong-lí ê thó͘-tē, in tōa-hūn lóng sī óa tī Be̍k-se-ko Oan kap Mississippi Hô iân-hōaⁿ. Mississippi Hô sī tùi pún chiu pak-pō͘ hiòng lâm, keng-kòe beh 1000 kong-lí tn̂g liáu-āu lâu ji̍p Be̍k-se-ko Oan, chú-iàu ê hun-chi ū Red Hô kap Ouachita Hô.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Louisiana goân-lâi sī Bí-kok goân-chū-bîn khiā-khí ê só͘-chāi. Khó-kó͘-ha̍k siōng ùi kin-á-ji̍t Monroe siâⁿ hū-kīn ê Watson Brake tē-tiám, ū hoat-kiàn 5400 tang chêng chó-iū só͘ khí ê chi̍t-kóa thô͘-tun (mound) kiàn-chō-bu̍t. Khah òaⁿ, koh ū ùi Poverty Point tē-tiám hông hoat-kiàn ê kong-goân-chêng 1500 nî chó-iū ê bûn-hòa, in ū khó-lêng sī Pak Bí-chiu siāng chá ê pō͘-lo̍k bûn-hòa, chûn-chāi kàu chêng 700 nî chó-ōiū.

Tāi-seng lâi kàu Louisiana ê Au-chiu lâng sī 1528 nî Se-pan-gâ Panfilo de Narváez niá-chhōa ê thàm-hiám-chiá, in tong sî khì káu Mississippi Hô chhut-kháu ê só͘-chāi. 17 sè-kí āu-kî, Hoat-kok kap Hoat-kok-hē Ka-ná-tah-lâng ê thàm-chhâ, kiàn-li̍p khí in tī Mississippi Hô kap Be̍k-sek-ko Oan hái-hōaⁿ oa̍h-tāng ê ki-chhó͘. Té-bé Hoat-kok chú-tiuⁿ tùi Be̍k-sek-ko Oan kàu Ka-ná-tah chi kan ê tōa hūn thó͘-tē.

1682 nî Hoat-kok ê Robert Cavelier de La Salle hō-miâ Louisiana tē-hng lâi kèng-hōng kok-ông Louis 14-sè. 1699 nî, tùi Ka-ná-tah kòe--lâi ê Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, kiàn-li̍p khí thâu chi̍t chō Hoat-kok-lâng ê éng-kiú chng-siā Fort Maurepas, in lēng-gōa koh tī Mississippi hái-kháu khí sió-hêng iàu-sài La Balise.

1722 nî, Hoat-kok kā Illinois Kok (Pays des Illinois) ê chèng-hú tùi Ka-ná-tah sóa kòe Louisiana. Tong-sî kóng ê Louisiana tē-khu, pau-koat liáu Tōa-ô͘ tē-khu í-lâm, Rocky Soaⁿ-tē kap Allegheny Soaⁿ-tē chi kan ê thó͘-tē. 1745 nî ê sî, Louisiana ê kài-sòaⁿ koh chìn chi̍t pō͘ hông khak-tēng.

Tiong-ng chián-sek pō͘-hūn sī Louisiana Siu-bé ê ê hoān-ûi.

1803 nî, Bí-kok keng-kòe Louisiana Siu-bé, chiong 2,100,000 pêng-hong kong-lí ê thó͘-tē bé-siu, só͘-hùi sī 6 chheng-bān franc. Chia-ê chîⁿ lāi-bīn ū 3.5 pah-bān sī sǹg lâi hêng Bí-kok khiàm Hoat-kok ê siàu.

1860 nî sî-chūn, Louisiana chiu lāi ū 18,647 ê chū-iû o͘-lâng, sī Bí-kok kok chiu lāi-bīn siāng chē--ê. Tông-sî in tī sán-gia̍p siōng óa-ná koh chin i-lōa o͘-lâng lô͘-lē, ū 331,726 ê lō͘-lê jîn-kháu, chiàm tong-sî chiu lāi chóng jîn-kháu 708,002 ê 47%. Kap kî-tha lâm-hong chiu hūn chò-chóe, Louisiana tī 1861 nî 1 goe̍h 26 thoat-lî liân-pang, ka-ji̍p America Liân-bêng-kok. Liân-pang-kun ê chiàn-lio̍k to̍h sī bé chiàm Mississippi Hô, chō-sêng Louisiana kòe bô lōa kú chiō hông phah-pāi, liân-pang-kun tī 1862 nî 4 goe̍h 25 chiàm-niá New Orleans siâⁿ.

2005 nî 8 goe̍h, New Orleans téng chiu lāi ó Be̍k-se-ko Oan ê kē-tē, siū tio̍h Hong-hai Katrina giâm-tiōng ê sún-hāi.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Louisiana tī 2015 nî ê GDP sī 239,305 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[8] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng chò ê sán-gia̍p sī kiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ kap siā-hōe hû-chō͘ (health care and social assistance).[9]

Louisiana chú-iàu ê lông-sán chi it sī hái-sán, in sī thong sè-kài siāng tōa ê tām-chúi lêng-hê (crawfish) ê sán-tē, chiàm 90% ê sán-liōng. Kî-tha ê lông-sán koh ū mî-hoe, n̂g-tāu, , kam-chià, leng-chè-phín kap tiū-bí. Kang-gia̍p ê hong-bīn ū seng-sán hòa-ha̍k chè-phín, chio̍h-iû kap mûi-thoàⁿ chè-phín, si̍t-phín ka-kang, ūn-su chong-pī, chè-chóa téng khoán. Koan-kong-gia̍p mā sī chāi-tē keng-chè tiōng-iàu ê pō͘-hūn, iû-kî sī tùi New Orleans tē-hng lâi kóng.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "New Orleans a 'ghost town' after thousands flee Gustav: mayor", AFP, Google, August 31, 2008, goân-loē-iông tī May 16, 2013 hőng khó͘-pih 
  2. "Expert: N.O. population at 273,000". WWL-TV. August 7, 2007. goân-loē-iông tī September 26, 2007 hőng khó͘-pih. August 14, 2007 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Relocation". Baton rouge. Connecting U.S. Cities. May 3, 2007. 
  4. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. December 26, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 9, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. goân-loē-iông tī October 15, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. October 21, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  8. "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Louisiana". Economic Research at the St. Louis Fed (FRED). 2016-12-07. 2017-01-09 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê.