New Mexico

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Thiàu khì: se̍h chām, chhiau-chhoē
New Mexico Chiu
State of New Mexico
Flag of New Mexico State seal of New Mexico
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: Land of Enchantment
Piau-gí: Crescit eundo ("sûi-hêng sêng-tióng")
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân Khòaⁿ lōe-iông
Liû-thong gí-giân
  • English 69.69%
  • Spanish 28.45%
  • Navajo 3.5%
  • other 4.09%[1]
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ New Mexican
Siú-hú Santa Fe
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Albuquerque
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Albuquerque to͘-hōe-khu
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-5
 • Ha̍p-kè 121,589 sq mi
(315,194 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 342 lí (550 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 370 lí (595 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 0.2
 • Hūi-tō͘ 31° 20′ N to 37° N
 • Keng-tō͘ 103° W to 109° 3′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-36
 • Ha̍p-kè 2,085,109 (2015 kó͘)[2]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 17.2/sq mi  (6.62/km2)
Pâi-miâ 45th
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Wheeler Peak[3][4][5]
13,167 ft (4013.3 m)
 • Pêng-kin 5,700 ft  (1,740 m)
 • Kē-tiám Red Bluff Chúi-khò͘ (óa Texas pian-kài)[4][5]
2,844 ft (867 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng New Mexico Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1912 nî 1 goe̍h 6 ji̍t (tē-47)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Susana Martinez (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ John Sanchez (R)
Li̍p-hoat New Mexico Li̍p-hoat-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Soaⁿ-khu: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166 US-NM
Kán-siá NM,
Bāng-chām www.newmexico.gov

New MexicoBí-kok sai-lâm ê chi̍t-ê chiu, jîn-kháu tāi-iok ū 2,499,481, pâi-miâ tē 35. I ê siú-húSanta Fe, siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Albuquerque.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

New Mexico ê biān-chek ū 314,460 pêng-hong kong-lí. Chiu ê tâng-pêng pian-kài sī 103° W keng-tō͘, keh-piah sī Oklahoma kap Texas. Chiu-ê lâm-pêng tōa-hūn mā kap Texas sio-chia̍p, sió-hūn sī oa̍h Mexico ê Chihuahua kap Sonora chiu. Tī, sai-pêng, New Mexico kap Arizona í 109° 03' W sio keh. Tī chiu-ê sai-pak, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, kap Utah 4-ê chiu sio-chia̍p tī chi̍t tiám, chit tiám hong hō chò Four Corners.

New Mexico ū bē chió âng-thô͘ soa-bo̍k, lāi-té tiāⁿ ū chit khoán chāi-tē kiò mesa ê soaⁿ, sī chi̍t khoán pêⁿ téng ê tâi-tē. Chiu lāi iû-kî pak-pō͘ ū chin chē chhiū-nâ.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Só͘ chāi siāng chá tī New Mexico chit ūi khiā-khí ê lâng sī sio̍k Clovis bûn-hòa ê sian-chū-bîn. Āu-lâi koh ū Mogollon kap Kó͘-tāi Poeblo-lâng (Ancestral Pueblo) téng-téng. Au-chiu-lâng tī 16 sè-kí lâi-kàu sî, tong-tē í-keng ū Pueblo-lâng kap Navajo, Apache, koh ū Ute téng pō͘-cho̍k.

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado cho͘ chi̍t tīn thàm-hiám-tūi, tùi 1540 nî kàu 1542 nî kî-kan, hiòng New Mexico chia lâi chhōe Fray Marcos de Niza só͘ siá ê nn̂g-kim siâⁿ Cibola. Lēng-gōa chi̍t ūi chhōe kim-khòng ê lâng Francisco de Ibarra, siú-sian ēng Se-pan-gâ-gí hō chit ūi sī Nuevo México, i tī 1563 nî khì kàu Mexico pak-pō͘ jî-chhiá pò-kò tùi "Sin--ê Mexico" ê hoat-hiān. Kàu 1598 nî, Juan de Oñate hong phài chò sin séng-hūn ê chóng-tok sî, chèng-sek hō liáu chit-ê miâ; I koh tī tang nî kiàn-li̍p pún tē siāng chá ê Au-chiu-lâng siā-lí San Juan de los Caballeros.

Santa Fe tī 1608 nî ùi Sangre de Cristo Soaⁿ-lêng kiàn-li̍p, m̄-koh chia-ê lâng kap kî-tha New Mexico ê î-bîn tōa-hūn lóng in-ūi 1680 nî ê Pueblo Hoán-loān lî-khui. It-ti̍t kàu Pueblo ê thâu-lâng Popé sí āu, Diego de Vargas khah lâi têng-sin kiàn-li̍p Se-pan-gâ lâng ê khòng-chè. 1706 nî, î-bîn koh sin khí Albuquerque siâⁿ.

New Mexico tī 1821 nî tùi teh Mexico ê to̍k-li̍p, piàn chò Mexico só͘ chú-tiúⁿ ê thó͘-tē. Āu-lâi Texas Kiōng-hô-kok tī 1836 nî kiàn-li̍p ê sî, mā chú-tiuⁿ Rio Grande Hô tang-pêng sī in só͘-iú. Lēng-gōa, New Mexico ê tang-pak pêng ū chi̍t kak goân-lâi sio̍k Hoat-kok, m̄-koh tī 1803 nî chiàu Louisiana Siu-bé choán hō͘ Bí-kok khì.

1846 nî Mexico Bí-kok Chiàn-cheng liáu-āu, Mexico kun-kù 1848 nî Guadalupe Hidalgo Tiâu-iok kā ī pak-pō͘ tōa-hūn tē-khu lóng koah hō͘ Bí-kok. 1850 nî ê sî, Texas kā in Rio Grande Hô tang-pêng ê léng-thó͘ kap Bí-kok ōaⁿ liáu 1-cheng bān ê Bí-kim. Liáu-āu Bí-kok tī tong-nî 9 goe̍h 9 ji̍t khai-siat New Mexico Léng-thó͘ (New Mexico Territory), lāi-té pau-koat kin-á-ji̍t ê Arizona kap pō͘ hūn Colorado. Lâm-pêng koh ū chi̍t kak thó͘-tē sī keng-kòe 1853 nî Gadsden Siu-bé theh tio̍h. Lēng-gōa, 1850 nî, New Mexico kap Texas ê kài-sòaⁿ khak-tēng.

New Mexico sī Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn ê Khòa-Mississippi Chiàn-tiûⁿ (Trans-Mississippi Theater) chi̍t pō͘-hūn, Liân-bêng-kok kap Ha̍p-chiòng-kok lóng chú-tiuⁿ tùi New Mexico Léng-thó͘ ê khoân-lī. 1861 nî, Liân-bêng-kok kā New Mexico lâm pòaⁿ pêng ōe ji̍p in ka-tī ê Arizona Léng-thó͘, it-ti̍t kàu chiàn-cheng kiat-sok chìn-chêng, Liân-bêng-kok kun-tūi lóng ēng Arizona ê kî-á tī chia oa̍h-tāng.

1945 nî ê goân-chú-tân chhì-giām Trinity.

1912 nî 1 goe̍h 6 ji̍t, kok-hōe tông-ì New Mexico siat chò Bí-kok tē-47-ê chiu. 1928 nî, tī Lea Kūn kap Hobbs siâⁿ téng só͘-chāi hoat-kìⁿ chio̍h-iû, it-ti̍t kàu 2002 nî, Midwest Refining Company iá koh tī Hobbs khai-chhái.

Tē-jī-chhù Sè-kài Tāi-chiàn kî-kan, chiu lāi ê Los Alamosgoân-chú-tân khai-hoat kap chè-chō ê só͘-chāi, lēng gōa koh tī White Sands soa-bo̍k chhì-giām. New Mexico āu-lâi hoat-tián chò Bí-kok Khong-kun ê iāu-tē, tû-liáu White Sands Hui-tân Tiûⁿ (White Sands Missile Range), koh ū Los Alamos Kok-kak Si̍t-giām-só͘ kap Sandia Kok-ka Si̍t-giām-só͘.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Koan-hong gí-giân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Goân-lâi tī 1912 nî siat-ê chiu hiàn-hoat sī kui-tēng pún chiu sī chhái-ēng Eng-gí kap Se-pan-gâ-gí ê siang-gí chèng-hú.[6] Í-gōa hiàn-hoat sī bô kui-tēng it-tēng ê "koan-hong" (official) gí-giân. 1935 nî í-chêng, li̍p-hoat hē-thóng sī ē-tàng thong Se-pan-gâ-gí. Nā tī su-hoat hē-thóng, ka-ta kóng Se-pan-gâ-gí ê lâng kap kóng Eng-gí--ê lâng sī ū kâng-khoán ē-tàng chò pôe-sím (jury) ê khoân-lī.[7][7][8] Kong-kiōng kàu-io̍k hong-bīn, chiu chèng-hú tī hiàn-hoat siōng ū gī-bū ài thê-kiong siang-gí kàu-io̍k.[7]

1989 nî, New Mexico chiâⁿ chò sī thâu chi̍t-ê chhái-ēng English Plus chèng-chhek ê chiu-hūn, ia̍h tio̍h sī thui-kóng Eng-gí í-gōa í-giân ê kàu-io̍k ūn-tōng.[9] 2008 nî ê sî, pún chiu koh tī kong-li̍p ha̍k-hāu sū-iōng Navajo-gí khò-pún.[10]

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

New Mexico tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 92,959 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[11] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng chò ê khang-khòe sī kiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ kap siā-hōe hû-chō͘ (health care and social assistance) sán-gia̍p.[12]

Pún chiu ê chio̍h-iû sán-liōng tī 2015 nî 6 goe̍h ū 12,709 chheng-tháng (thousand barrels), tī Bí-kok kok-chiu lāi pâi-miâ tē-5[13].

Siòng-phìⁿ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "Most spoken languages in New Mexico in 2010". MLA Data Center. November 4, 2012 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. December 26, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Wheeler". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. October 24, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. goân-loē-iông tī October 15, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. October 24, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  6. Crawford, John (1992). Language loyalties: a source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 62. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Constitution of the State of New Mexico. Adopted January 21, 1911.
  8. Roberts, Calvin A. (2006). Our New Mexico: A Twentieth Century History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 23. 
  9. Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Politics. Edinburgh University Press. p. 63. 
  10. Felicia Fonseca (July 31, 2008). "New Mexico first state to adopt Navajo textbook". Seattle Times. October 29, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  11. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for New Mexico, FRED.
  12. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. Rankings: Crude Oil Production, June 2015 (thousand barrels), U.S. Energy Information Administration.