Iowa

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Thiàu khì: se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Iowa Chiu
State of Iowa
Flag of Iowa State seal of Iowa
Chiû-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: The Hawkeye State
Piau-gí: Our liberties we prize and our rights we will maintain.
Map of the United States with Iowa highlighted
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Iowan
Siú-hú
(kiam siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī)
Des Moines
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Des Moines to͘-hōe-khu
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-26
 • Ha̍p-kè 56,272.81 sq mi
(145,746 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 310 lí (500 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 199 lí (320 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 0.70
 • Hūi-tō͘ 40° 23′ N to 43° 30′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 90° 8′ W to 96° 38′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-30
 • Ha̍p-kè 3,123,899 (2015 nî ko͘-sǹg)[1]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 54.8/sq mi  (21.2/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-36
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $48,075 (tē-24)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Hawkeye Point[2][3]
1,671 ft (509 m)
 • Pêng-kin 1,100 ft  (340 m)
 • Kē-tiám Mississippi Hô kap Des Moines Hô sio-cha̍p tiám[2][3]
480 ft (146 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Iowa Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1846 nî 12 goe̍h 28 ji̍t (tē-29)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Terry E. Branstad (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Kim Reynolds (R)
Li̍p-hoat Gī-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gi-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân Chuck Grassley (R)
Joni Ernst (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 1: Rod Blum (R)
2: Dave Loebsack (D)
3: David Young (R)
4: Steve King (R) (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Central: UTC -6/-5
ISO 3166 US-IA
Kán-siá IA,
Bāng-chām www.iowa.gov

IowaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-hú kap siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Des Moines.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

"Iowa" chit-ê miâ sī tùi Iowa-lâng hō--lâi, sī Au-chiu-lâng tú lâi ê sî tī chia seng-oa̍h ê goân-chū-bîn pō͘-cho̍k.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Iowa tang-pêng kài-sòaⁿ sī Mississippi Hô, sai-pêng sī Missouri Hô kap Big Sioux Hô (kun-kù in 19-sè-kî sî ê lō͘-sòaⁿ), pak-pêng sī hūi-tō͘ N43°30'; nā lâm-pêng sī N40°35', che sī kài-sòaⁿ cheng-gī "Phang-bi̍t Chiàn-cheng" (Honey War) liáu āu Bí-kok Chòe-ko Hoat-īⁿ tī 1849 nî só͘ chhâi-phòaⁿ koat-tēng.

Tī Iowa ê chū-jiân-ô͘ ū Spirit Ô͘, West Okoboji Ô͘, East Okoboji Ô͘ tī sai-pak-pō͘, nā lâm-pêng ū Clear Ô͘. Tī in sai-pak koh ū chi̍t kóa tâm-tē, phì-jû Barringer Slough.

Thong chiu ū 99-ê kūn, siú-hū chāi Polk Kūn ê Des Moines.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bí-chiu goân-chū-bîn (Indian-lâng) tī 13000 nî í-chêng chiū tī Iowa seng-oa̍h. Au-chiu-lâng tú lâi chia ê sî, chia-ê goân-chū-bîn í-keng tōa-hūn kòe chò-sit ê sêng-oa̍h, tī keng-chè kap siā-hōe siōng mā ū it-tēng ê hoat-tián.

Ū kì-lio̍k siāng chá lâi Iowa ê Au-chiu-lâng sī Jacques Marquette kap Louis Jolliet, in sī 1673 nî iân Mississippi Hô lú-hêng, tùi Iowa chia ê chi̍t kóa pō͘-lo̍k ū kì-lio̍k. Iowa kàu 1763 nî í-chêng sī Hoat-kok léng-tē. In āu-lâi kā thó͘-tē pôaⁿ hō Se-pan-gâ. Se-pan-gâ tùi chia ê khòng-chè bô kiông, chú-iàu sī koán-lí tī Mississippi kap Des Moines Hô iân-hōaⁿ oa̍h-tāng ê Hoat-kok kap Eng-kok ê seng-lí-lâng.

Iowa sī Louisiana léng-thó͘ ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn. 1800 nî sî, Hoat-kok koh tùi Se-pan-gâ hia theh tio̍h Louisiana ê khòng-chè-khoân. Kàu 1803 nî, keng-kòe Louisiana Siu-bé, Iowa kiam kui-ê Louisiana hō͘ Bí-kok niá khì. 1808 nî ê sî, Bí-kok phài lâng siat Fort Madison iàu-sài, tùi cht-ūi kiàn-li̍p kun-su khòng-chè. Sui-jiân khòng-chè liáu Mississippi Hô téng-liû, Fort Madison í-khí liáu tùi chia óa-ná ū léng-thó͘ chú-tiuⁿ ê Sauk kap Ho-Chunk cho̍k lâng put-boán. Tī 1812 nî Chiàn-cheng tiong, Fort Madison hō͘ Eng-kok chi-chhî ê goân-chū-bîn phài pāi, hit chūn Sauk ê thâu-lâng Black Hawk mā ū chham-ka kong-ke̍k. Liáu-āu, Bí-kok tī Minnesota kap Nebraska sin siat iàu-sài, chia̍h koh têng-sin tùi chia kiàn-li̍p khòng-chè.

Bí-kok kó͘-lē jîn-bīn hiòng chhú-tē î-bîn, tông-sî mā kā Indian goân-chū-bîn sóa khì koh khah se-pō͘. 1804 nî Sauk thâu-lâng Quashquame kap chóng-thóng William Henry Harrison chhiam-iok, kā chi̍t-pō͘-hūn Illinois tē-khu kòa hō͘ Bí-kok, che chō-sêng chin chē Sauk-lâng ê put-boán, ín-khí 1832 nî ê Black Hawk Chiàn-cheng. Bí-kok soah iàu-kiû in chō-hoán ê pō͘-cho̍k lî-khui pún-tē, kiat-kó tùi 1832 nî kàu 1946 nî, Sauk kap Meskwaki lâng lóng hō͘ kóaⁿ chhut Iowa. Meskwaki āu-lâi ū tó-tńg Iowa, tī Tama siâⁿ hū-kīn seng-oa̍h. Lēng-gōa Ho-Chunk kap Dakota lâng mā tī 1950 nî-tāi hong kóaⁿ cháu.

1833 nî, Iowa khah chèng-sek ū Bí-kok ê khai-khún-chiá kòe--khì, in chú-iàu lâi-goân ū Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, kap Virginia. 1938 nî 6 goe̍h 4 ji̍t, kok-hōe thòng-kòe Iowa Léng-thó͘ (Territory of Iowa) ê kiàn-li̍p, chóng-thóng chí-phài Robert Lucas chò léng-thó͘ ê tiúⁿ-koaⁿ, hit-chūn in ū jîn-kháu 2-gōa bān. 1846 nî 12 goe̍h 28, chóng-thóng James K. Polk chhiam-jī, hō͘ Iowa kái siat Bí-kok tē 29-ê chiu.

1850 nî-tāi, khì-chûn sī Mississippi Hô kap kî-tha chúi-lō͘ chú-iàu ê kau-thong kang-khu, mā tī hit-tong-sî, Iowa tùi teh choan-kok ê liû-hêng khái-sí tùi thih-lō͘ ê tōa-kûi-bô͘ kiàn-siat ū hèng-chhù. Kàu 1960 nî-tāi, 5-tiâu kàn-sòaⁿ thàng lâi kàu Iowa, pau-koat Liân-ha̍p Thài-pêng-iûⁿ (Union Pacific) kap Tiong-iong Thài-pêng-iûⁿ (Central Pacific), che nn̄g lō͘ sio-chiap mā sī Bí-kok thâu chi̍t tiâu khòa tāi-lio̍k ê thin-lō͘. Thih-lō͘ ê khai-siat, hō͘ Iowa ê lông-sán ē-sài sàng kàu Chicago lâi hiòng kok-lāi-gōa chhut-kháu.

Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn sî, Iowa chi-chhî Liân-pan, hiòng tang-pō͘ thê-kiong peng-má kap niû-chháu, tû-liáu Missouri Athens ê chiàn-e̍k chiō tī Iowa pian-kài, chiu lāi pēng bô chiàn-tiûⁿ. Kui chiu ê 675,000 lâng tiong ū 116,000 lóng chham-ka liáu chiàn-cheng sū-bū, 75,000 lâng chū-oān chham-kun, sī pí-lē siōng koân ê chi̍t chiu. In chú-iàu chham-ka Mississipi Hô iâⁿ-hōaⁿ ê chiàn-e̍k.

1872 nî ê Iowa kiam Nebraska thó͘-tē bé-bē kóng-kò.

Chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu, Iowa ê jîn-kháu tōa-liōng chin-ka, tùi 1860 nî ê 67 bān ka-tiam kàu 1870 nî ê 119 bān. Chìn-chêng ê thih-lō͘ khai-siat hō͘ in piàn chò chú-iàu ê lông-sán chiu chi it. In mā tī 1870 nî-tāi hoat-tián lông-giap siong-koan ê kang-giap seng-sán.

1917 nî, Bí-kok chham-ka liáu Tē-it-chhù Sè-kài Tāi-chiàn, hit-tong-sî chāi-tê lông-ka chin siū chiàn-cheng sî-kî keng-chè ê tì-ìm, jî-chhiá mā siū ài-kok-chú-gī ê kó͘-bú chin-ka sán-liōng. M̄-koh chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu soah hi-bî khì, chin chē ka-têng seng-oa̍h khùn-lân.

Ūi tio̍h kái-koat lông-sán kè-siàu lo̍h-kè ê būn-tê, in hoat khí Lông-ka Kà-ji̍t Cho͘-ha̍p (Farmers Holiday Association), tī Sioux Chhī téng só͘-chāi ûi-hō͘ in-ê chhī-tiûⁿ. Chóng-sī hāu-kó iú-hān, si̍t-chè kàu 1933 nî chóng-thóng Franklin D. Roosevelt ê Sin Chèng-chhek (New Deal) tùi lông-gia̍p pó͘-thiap chiah ū bêng-hián kái-siàn put-lī.

Iowa chhut-sin ê ha̍k-chiá Nobel Chióng tit-chióng-jîn Norman Borlaug tāi-khài mā tī hit chūn tī leh ián-kiù si̍t-bu̍t ê ûi-thoân-ha̍k.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Iowa tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 170,613 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[4]

Chè-chō-gia̍p sī Iowa chú-iàu ê keng-chè pō͘-mn̂g, in ê sán-phín ū si̍t-phín ka-kang, tāng ki-hâi, lông-gia̍p hòa-ha̍k téng-téng. Chāi-tē chia̍h-thâu-lō͘-lâng tāi-iok 6-siâⁿ sio̍k chè-chō-gia̍p.

Lông-sán hong-bīn, chú-iàu ū chhī-ti, chhī-gû, ke-nn̄g, hoan-be̍h, n̂g-tāu, tōa-be̍h. In sī kok-lāi siāng tiā ê it-sûn kiam hoan-be̍h seng-sán chiu.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]