Texas

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Texas Chiu
State of Texas
Flag of Texas State seal of Texas
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: Ko͘ Chheⁿ Chiu The Lone Star State
Piau-gí: Iú-gī Friendship
Chiu-koa: "Texas, Lán-ê Texas (Texas, Our Texas)"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân
(chham-khó Texas ê gí-giân)
Liû-thong gí-giân Tōa-to-sò͘ Eng-gí;
chi̍t tōa hūn sī Se-pan-gâ-gí [1]
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Texan
Texian (kū-sek)
Tejano
Siú-hú Austin
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Houston
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ 2nd
 • Ha̍p-kè 268,581[2] sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 773[3] lí (1,244 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 790 lí (1,270 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 2.5
 • Hūi-tō͘ 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ 2nd
 • Ha̍p-kè 27,695,284 (2015 ko͘-sǹg)[4]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 103.1/sq mi  (40.8/km2)
Pâi-miâ 26th
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Guadalupe Peak[5][6]
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
 • Pêng-kin 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 • Kē-tiám Gulf of Mexico[5]
sea level
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Republic of Texas
Sin chiu seng-li̍p December 29, 1845 (28th)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Greg Abbott (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Dan Patrick (R)
Li̍p-hoat Texas Li̍p-hoat-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân John Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu Kiōng-hô-tóng: 25,
Bîn-chú-tóng: 11 (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu  
 • most of state Tiong-iong: UTC −6/−5
 • tip of West Texas Mountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166 US-TX
Kán-siá TX, Tex.
Bāng-chām www.texas.gov

TexasBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húAustin. Siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Houston.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

"Texas" chit jī sī tùi Hasinai-lâng ê Caddo-gí ê táyshaʔ chio̍h--lâi, ì-sù sī "pêng-iú" he̍k-chiá "bêng-iú".[2]

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Texas ê bīn-chek tī Bí-kok kok chiū lāi pâi tē-2, tī Alaska āu-piah, ū 696,200 pêng-hong kong-lí. Ūi-tì siōng Texas sī tī Bí-kok tiong-lâm-pō͘. Texas kap lâm-pêng ê Mexico chi-kan sio-keh Rio Grande Hô, tùi-bīn sī Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, kap Tamaulipas. Chham pak-pêng ê Oklahoma kap Arkansas chi kan, sī sio-keh Red Hô (Red River). Nā kap tang-pêng ê Louisiana chi kan, sī Sabine Hô. Chiu lāi sai-pak-pō͘ ū chit ūi hong hō chò Texas Panhandle, sì-ûi kap Oklahoma kap New Mexico sio oah.

Chū-jiân tē-lí siōng, Texas ē-sài hun chò kúi khú, pau-koat Oan Hōaⁿ Pêng-goân (Gulf Coastal Plains), Lōe-liok Kē-tē (Interior Lowlands), Tōa Pêng-goân (Great Plains), koh ū La̍p-tē kap Soaⁿ-lêng Tē-hng (Basin and Range Province).

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Khó-kó͘-ha̍k siōng tùi Pak Bí-chiu tī Au-chiu-lâng lâi kàu chìn-chêng ê bûn-hòa khu-hun.

Columbus í-chêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chêng-Columbus sî-tāi (Pre-Columbian era) ê Pak Bí-chiu, Texas chit ūi sī Sai-lâm (Southwestern) kap Pêng-goân (Plains) nn̄g tōa bûn-hòa khu sio-chiap ê só͘-chāi. Chiàu khó-kó͘ gián-kiù, tī Au-chiu lâng lâi chìn-chêng, Texas ê tiong-se-pō͘ ū Pueblo; oa̍h tang-pêng ū Mississippi bûn-hòa; lēng-gōa koh ū Mesoamerica ê bûn-hòa tī lâm-pō͘ seng-oa̍h.

Só͘ chai pat tī Texas lāi khiā-khí ê goân-chū-bîn pau-koat Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, kap Wichita. Au-chiu-lâng lâi ê sî, chia-ê cho̍k-kûn kap gōa-lâng chia̍p-chhio̍k ê hêng-sek ē-sài kóng ū 2 tōa khoán, chi̍t khoán sī pang-chō͘ lâng ha̍p-si̍p chāi-tē seng-oa̍h ê ki-sut, chi̍t khoán sī kap lâng sio-thâi.

16 kàu 18 sè-kì[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1519 nî Se-pan-gâ thàm-hiám-ka Alonso Álvarez de Pineda ê Mexico Oan hái-hōaⁿ tē-tô͘ sī só͘-chai siāng chá iú-koan Texas ê le̍k-sú kì-lio̍k. Siāng-chá lâi kàu Texas ê Au-chiu-lâng sī Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, i tī 1528 nî pò-kò i-ê kiàn-bûn. Lēng-gōa Francisco Vázquez de Coronado mā kì-lio̍k tī 1541 nî tú tio̍h Querechos kap Teyas nn̄g khoán chhī-gû ê bîn-cho̍k.

1685 nî, goân-lâi be̍h tī Mississippi Hô khai-siat si̍t-bîn-tē ê René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle, in-ūi kè-sǹg sit-gō͘, soah tī Matagorda Oan siat Fort Saint Louis, chit-ê siâⁿ-chng siū hong-thó͘ éng-thióng kap goân-chū-bîn ê thó-ià, kòe 4 tang chio̍h sit-pāi.

Se-pan-gâ tī 1690 nî khai-sí hiòng Texas tang-pō͘ soan-kàu, m̄-koh siū chāi-tē goân-chū-bîn hoán-khòng, in-ê lâng āu-bóe tó-tńg Mexico. Āu-lâi, tī 1716 nî, tong Hoat-kokLouisiana hoat-tián ê sî, Se-pan-gâ ê soan-kàu oa̍h-tāng koh têng-sin hoat-khí. 1718 nî, Texas siāng chá ê Se-pan-gâ-lâng khui-khún-tē San Antonio siat-li̍p.

1749 nî, Se-pan-gâ kap Lipan Apache lâng chhiam liáu hô-pêng tiâu-iok, che ín-khí kî-tha chāi-tē pō͘-lo̍k pau-koat Comanche, Tonkawa kap Hasinai ê put-boán. Āu-bóe Comanche mā chhām Se-pan-gâ tī 1785 nî chhiam-iok, liáu-āu koh pang-chō͘ Se-pan-gâ phah iâⁿ Lipan Apache kap Karankawa.

Siū tio̍h lú chē ê soan-kàu éng-hióng, kàu 18 sè-kí bóe-kî tōa-hūn ê chāi-tē po͘-lo̍k lóng í-keng sìn-gióng Ki-tok-kàu.

19 sè-kí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bí-kok tī 1803 nî hiòng Hoat-kok siu-bé Louisiana, liáu-āu in chú-tiuⁿ Texas mā sǹg chāi kau-e̍k lāi. 1819 nî, Sin Se-pan-gâ kap Bí-kok ê pian-kài khak-tēng siat ùi Sabine Hô. Chóng-sī chin chē Bí-kok khui-khún-chiá bô sêng-jīm chit hāng hia̍p-tēng, óa-ná kè-sio̍k hiòng Texas î-bîn. Kàu 1821 nî, Mexico to̍k-li̍p, kî-tiong Texas mā sī chi̍t hūn, siat ùi Coahuila y Tejas chiu ē-té.

Mexico hong-bīn mā khai-hòng hō͘ Bí-kok î-bîn hiòng Texas hoat-tián, in lī-ēng chi̍t khoán kiò empresario ê thâu-lâng, chio gōa-lâi î-bîn tī pún-tē khui-khún. Kî-tiong Empresario Moses kap Stephen F. Austin pē-á-kiáⁿ chhōa chi̍t tīn kiò "Lāu Saⁿ Pah" (Old Three Hundred) ê î-bîn tī Brazos Hô hū-kīn khiā-khí. Lēng-goā mā ū 23 ūi empresario tī chia. 1825 nî ê sî, Texas 3,500-ê î-bîn lāi tōa-hūn lóng sī Mexico-lâng, kàu 1834 nî, 37,800-ê î-bîn lāi lóng-chóng Mexico-lâng kaⁿ chiàm 7,800.

Î-bîn-chiá bô sìn-táu Mexico hoat-lu̍t, phì-jû tùi lô͘-lē chè-tō͘ ê kìm-lēng. Āu-lâi, Mexico chèng-hú tī 1830 nî kìm-chí Bí-kok î-bîn. 1832 nî Anahuac Jiáu-loān (Anahuac Disturbances) sī hit tong-sî lâng tùi Mexico thóng-tī ê hoán-khòng, mā kap Mexico chāi-tē hoán ka-tī chóng-thóng ê ūn-tōng liân-ha̍p, āu-bóe Mexico kun-tūi hong kóaⁿ chhut Texas tang-pō͘.

Texas-lâng tī 1832 kap 1833 nî nn̄g kái chi̍p-hōe, gián-kiù to̍k-li̍p chú-tiuⁿ. 1835 nî, Gonzales chi Chiàn (Battle of Gonzales) khai-sí liáu Texas Kek-bēng, in tī nn̄g kó goe̍h āu phah pāi Mexico kun-tūi. Lēng-gōa mā soán chhut Hia̍p-gī-hōe (Consultation) chò lîm-sî chèng-hú, m̄-koh chit-ê chèng-hú āu-lâi tó khì. Chāi Texas tng loān ê sî-ki, Mexico ap-chè liáu Texas ê hoán-khòng, kî-tiong Mexico chóng-thóng Antonio López de Santa Anna chhōa kun tī Alamo chi Chiàn (Battle of the Alamo) tiong phah pāi Texas kun.

1836 nî 3 goe̍h 2 hō ,Texas-lâng khui-hōe chhiam-sú To̍k-li̍p Soan-giân, kiàn-li̍p Texas Kiōng-hô-kok. Liáu-āu, keng-kòe kúi lé-pài ê thè-kun, Sam Houston niá-chhōa ê Texas kun-tūi tī San Jacinto chi Chiàn phah-iâⁿ Santa Anna ê jîn-bé, jī-chhiá lia̍h khí Santa Anna kiông-pek i chhiam Velasco TTiâu-iok lâi kiat-so̍k chiàn-cheng.

To̍k-li̍p ê Texas chèng-tī siōng hun chò tùi-li̍p ê nn̄g phài, chi̍t pêng sī Mirabeau B. Lamar chhōa-thâu, chú-tiuⁿ î-chhî to̍k-li̍p, kóaⁿ cháu goân-chū-bîn, jī-chhiá tùi gōa khok-chhiong léng-thó͘. Lēng-gōa chi̍t pêng sī Sam Houston chhoā-thâu, chú-tiuⁿ ka-ji̍p Bí-kok, jī-chhiá kap goân-chū-bîn chò-hóe seng-oa̍h.

Mexico tī 1842 nî hiòng Texas nn̄g piàn hoat-peng koh sêng-kong chiàm-niá San Antonio, m̄-koh bô î-chhî chiàn-kó. Chóng--sī Texas kiông-hô-kok hông-gū siōng chia̍h-la̍t ê chōng-hóng, ka-kiông in ka-ji̍p Bí-kok ê su-kiû.

1844 nî, chú-tiuⁿ khip-siu Texas ê James K. Polk tòng sóaⁿ Bí-kok chóng-thóng, 1845 nî 12 goe̍h 29, kok-hōe tông-ì siat Texas chò Bí-kok chi̍t chiu. Tông-sî, Mexico kap Bí-kok chhiat tn̄g gōa-kau koan-hē, nn̄g kok tùi Texas ê pian-kài chú-tiuⁿ chhiong-tu̍t.

1860 nî, Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn khai-sí, hit-tong-sî chiu lāi 30 pha ê jîn-kháu sī o͘-lâng, in tōa-hūn lóng sī lô͘-lē. 1861 nî 1 goe̍h 28, tī Austin ê hōe-gī, lâm-hong koat-tēng thoat-lî Bí-kok. 2 goe̍h 23 Texas ka-tī mā tâu-phiò thong-kòe chit hāng koat-tēng, 3 goe̍h sî ka-ji̍p America Liân-bêng Kok.

1900 nî, Texas tú tio̍h Bí-kok le̍k-sú siōng sí-bông siāng giâm-tiōng ê hong-thai Galveston.

20 sè-kí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1901 nî 1 goe̍h 10 ji̍t, chiu lāi thâu chi̍t ê iû-chhéⁿ Spindletop khai-siat, liáu-āu, sī Texas chio̍h-iû sán-gia̍p ê heng-khí; in-ê khai-chhái liōng āu-bóe tī 1972 nî tat kàu le̍k-sú ko-tiám.

Tē-jī-chhù Sè-kài Tāi-chiàn sî-kî, liân-pang chèng-hú tī Texas tōa-liōng khai-siat kun-su siat-si, lēng-gōa pún chiu ū 75 bān lâng ka-ki̍p kun-tūi. 1961 nî, NASA koh tī kun-sū sán-gia̍p hoat-ta̍t ê Huston khí-chō chài-lâng thài-khong tiong-sim (1973 nî hō-miâ Lyndon B. Johnson Thài-khong Tiong-sim).

1963 nî 11 goe̍h 22 ji̍t, Bí-kok chóng-thóng John F. KennedyDallas hong àm-sat.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiàu Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k ê kou-sǹg, Texas 2014 nî chóng jîn-kháu ū 26,956,958 lâng.[7]

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Texas tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 1,648,036 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[8]

Pún chiu ê chio̍h-iû sán-liōng tī 2015 nî 6 goe̍h ū 106,843 chheng-tháng (thousand barrels), tī Bí-kok kok-chiu lāi pâi-miâ tē-1.[9]

Texas ê chhân-hn̂g biān-chek, kap ka-thiok sán-chhut tī Bí-kok mā sī pâi thâu miâ. Chhī-gû sī chiu lāi siāng hoat-ta̍t ê lông-sán. Lông-chok-bu̍t hong-bīn, mî-hoe sán-liōng mā sī Bí-kok tē it. Kî-tha pì-jû hî-gia̍p, khòng-gia̍p, âng-bûn-thô͘, giâm-sán téng-téng, Texas mā sī choân-kok chhōa-thâu--ê.

21 sè-kì í-lâi, Texas keng-le̍k khiàm-chúi būn-tê, lông-gia̍p siū bōe chió sún-sit.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Texas — Languages. MLA. April 15, 2010 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Facts (2008–2009 ed.). Texas Almanac. 2008. April 29, 2008 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. Environment (2008–2009 ed.). Texas Almanac. 2008. Archived from the original on March 17, 2008. April 29, 2008 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. Population Data for Texas Counties, 2015. Texas Department of State Health Services. Tī March 20, 2015 khoàⁿ--ê.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Elevations and Distances in the United States. United States Geological Survey (2001). Tī October 24, 2011 khoàⁿ--ê.
  6. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  7. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2014/tables/NST-EST2014-01.csv
  8. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Texas, FRED.
  9. Rankings: Crude Oil Production, June 2015 (thousand barrels), U.S. Energy Information Administration.