Texas

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Thiàu khì: Se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Texas Chiu
State of Texas
Flag of Texas State seal of Texas
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: Ko͘ Chheⁿ Chiu The Lone Star State
Thê-jī: Iú-gī Friendship
Chiu-koa: "Texas, Lán-ê Texas (Texas, Our Texas)"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân
(chham-khó Texas ê gí-giân)
Liû-thong gí-giân Tōa-to-sò͘ Eng-gí;
chi̍t tōa hūn sī Se-pan-gâ-gí [1]
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Texan
Texian (kū-sek)
Tejano
Siú-hú Austin
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Houston
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ 2nd
 • Ha̍p-kè 268,581[2] sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 773[3] lí (1,244 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 790 lí (1,270 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 2.5
 • Hūi-tō͘ 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ 2nd
 • Ha̍p-kè 27,695,284 (2015 ko͘-sǹg)[4]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 103.1/sq mi  (40.8/km2)
Pâi-miâ 26th
Koân-tō͘
 • Chòe-ko tiám Guadalupe Peak[5][6]
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
 • Pêng-kin 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 • Chòe-kē tiám Gulf of Mexico[5]
sea level
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Republic of Texas
Sin chiu seng-li̍p December 29, 1845 (28th)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Greg Abbott (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Dan Patrick (R)
Li̍p-hoat Texas Li̍p-hoat-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân John Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu Kiōng-hô-tóng: 25,
Bîn-chú-tóng: 11 (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu  
 • most of state Tiong-iong: UTC −6/−5
 • tip of West Texas Mountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166 US-TX
Kán-siá TX, Tex.
Bāng-chām www.texas.gov

TexasBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húAustin. Siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Houston.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

"Texas" chit jī sī tùi Hasinai-lâng ê Caddo-gí ê táyshaʔ chio̍h--lâi, ì-sù sī "pêng-iú" he̍k-chiá "bêng-iú".[2]

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Texas ê bīn-chek tī Bí-kok kok chiū lāi pâi tē-2, tī Alaska āu-piah, ū 696,200 pêng-hong kong-lí. Ūi-tì siōng Texas sī tī Bí-kok tiong-lâm-pō͘. Texas kap lâm-pêng ê Mexico chi-kan sio-keh Rio Grande Hô, tùi-bīn sī Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, kap Tamaulipas. Chham pak-pêng ê Oklahoma kap Arkansas chi kan, sī sio-keh Red Hô (Red River). Nā kap tang-pêng ê Louisiana chi kan, sī Sabine Hô. Chiu lāi sai-pak-pō͘ ū chit ūi hong hō chò Texas Panhandle, sì-ûi kap Oklahoma kap New Mexico sio oah.

Chū-jiân tē-lí siōng, Texas ē-sài hun chò kúi khú, pau-koat Oan Hōaⁿ Pêng-goân (Gulf Coastal Plains), Lōe-liok Kē-tē (Interior Lowlands), Tōa Pêng-goân (Great Plains), koh ū La̍p-tē kap Soaⁿ-lêng Tē-hng (Basin and Range Province).

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Khó-kó͘-ha̍k siōng tùi Pak Bí-chiu tī Au-chiu-lâng lâi kàu chìn-chêng ê bûn-hòa khu-hun.

Columbus í-chêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chêng-Columbus sî-tāi (Pre-Columbian era) ê Pak Bí-chiu, Texas chit ūi sī Sai-lâm (Southwestern) kap Pêng-goân (Plains) nn̄g tōa bûn-hòa khu sio-chiap ê só͘-chāi. Chiàu khó-kó͘ gián-kiù, tī Au-chiu lâng lâi chìn-chêng, Texas ê tiong-se-pō͘ ū Pueblo; oa̍h tang-pêng ū Mississippi bûn-hòa; lēng-gōa koh ū Mesoamerica ê bûn-hòa tī lâm-pō͘ seng-oa̍h.

Só͘ chai pat tī Texas lāi khiā-khí ê goân-chū-bîn pau-koat Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, kap Wichita. Au-chiu-lâng lâi ê sî, chia-ê cho̍k-kûn kap gōa-lâng chia̍p-chhio̍k ê hêng-sek ē-sài kóng ū 2 tōa khoán, chi̍t khoán sī pang-chō͘ lâng ha̍p-si̍p chāi-tē seng-oa̍h ê ki-sut, chi̍t khoán sī kap lâng sio-thâi.

16 kàu 18 sè-kì[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1519 nî Se-pan-gâ thàm-hiám-ka Alonso Álvarez de Pineda ê Mexico Oan hái-hōaⁿ tē-tô͘ sī só͘-chai siāng chá iú-koan Texas ê le̍k-sú kì-lio̍k. Siāng-chá lâi kàu Texas ê Au-chiu-lâng sī Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, i tī 1528 nî pò-kò i-ê kiàn-bûn. Lēng-gōa Francisco Vázquez de Coronado mā kì-lio̍k tī 1541 nî tú tio̍h Querechos kap Teyas nn̄g khoán chhī-gû ê bîn-cho̍k.

1685 nî, goân-lâi be̍h tī Mississippi Hô khai-siat si̍t-bîn-tē ê René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle, in-ūi kè-sǹg sit-gō͘, soah tī Matagorda Oan siat Fort Saint Louis, chit-ê siâⁿ-chng siū hong-thó͘ éng-thióng kap goân-chū-bîn ê thó-ià, kòe 4 tang chio̍h sit-pāi.

Se-pan-gâ tī 1690 nî khai-sí hiòng Texas tang-pō͘ soan-kàu, m̄-koh siū chāi-tē goân-chū-bîn hoán-khòng, in-ê lâng āu-bóe tó-tńg Mexico. Āu-lâi, tī 1716 nî, tong Hoat-kokLouisiana hoat-tián ê sî, Se-pan-gâ ê soan-kàu oahk-tāng oh têng-sin hoat-khí. 1718 nî, Texas siāng chá ê Se-pan-gâ-lâng khui-khún-tē San Antonio siat-li̍p.

1749 nî, Se-pan-gâ kap Lipan Apache lâng chhiam liáu hô-pêng tiâu-iok, che ín-khí kî-tha chāi-tē pō͘-lo̍k pau-koat Comanche, Tonkawa kap Hasinai ê put-boán. Āu-bóe Comanche mā chhām Se-pan-gâ tī 1785 nî chhiam-iok, liáu-āu koh pang-chō͘ Se-pan-gâ phah iâⁿ Lipan Apache kap Karankawa.

Siū tio̍h lú chē ê soan-kàu éng-hióng, kàu 18 sè-kí bóe-kî tōa-hūn ê chāi-tē po͘-lo̍k lóng í-keng sìn-gióng Ki-tok-kàu.

19 sè-kí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bí-kok tī 1803 nî hiòng Hoat-kok siu-bé Louisiana, liáu-āu in chú-tiuⁿ Texas mā sǹg chāi kau-e̍k lāi. 1819 nî, Sin Se-pan-gâ kap Bí-kok ê pian-kài khak-tēng siat ùi Sabine Hô. Chóng-sī chin chē Bí-kok khui-khún-chiá bô sêng-jīm chit hāng hia̍p-tēng, óa-ná kè-sio̍k hiòng Texas î-bîn. Kàu 1821 nî, Mexico to̍k-li̍p, kî-tiong Texas mā sī chi̍t hūn, siat ùi Coahuila y Tejas chiu ē-té.

Mexico hong-bīn mā khai-hòng hō͘ Bí-kok î-bîn hiòng Texas hoat-tián, in lī-ēng chi̍t khoán kiò empresario ê thâu-lâng, chio gōa-lâi î-bîn tī pún-tē khui-khún. Kî-tiong Empresario Moses kap Stephen F. Austin pē-á-kiáⁿ chhōa chi̍t tīn kiò "Lāu Saⁿ Pah" (Old Three Hundred) ê î-bîn tī Brazos Hô hū-kīn khiā-khí. Lēng-goā mā ū 23 ūi empresario tī chia. 1825 nî ê sî, Texas 3,500-ê î-bîn lāi tōa-hūn lóng sī Mexico-lâng, kàu 1834 nî, 37,800-ê î-bîn lāi lóng-chóng Mexico-lâng kaⁿ chiàm 7,800.

Î-bîn-chiá bô sìn-táu Mexico hoat-lu̍t, phì-jû tùi lô͘-lē chè-tō͘ ê kìm-lēng. Āu-lâi, Mexico chèng-hú tī 1830 nî kìm-chí Bí-kok î-bîn. 1832 nî Anahuac Jiáu-loān (Anahuac Disturbances) sī hit tong-sî lâng tùi Mexico thóng-tī ê hoán-khòng, mā kap Mexico chāi-tē hoán ka-tī chóng-thóng ê ūn-tōng liân-ha̍p, āu-bóe Mexico kun-tūi hong kóaⁿ chhut Texas tang-pō͘.

Texas-lâng tī 1832 kap 1833 nî nn̄g kái chi̍p-hōe, gián-kiù to̍k-li̍p chú-tiuⁿ. 1835 nî, Gonzales chi Chiàn (Battle of Gonzales) khai-sí liáu Texas Kek-bēng, in tī nn̄g kó goe̍h āu phah pāi Mexico kun-tūi. Lēng-gōa mā soán chhut Hia̍p-gī-hōe (Consultation) chò lîm-sî chèng-hú, m̄-koh chit-ê chèng-hú āu-lâi tó khì. Chāi Texas tng loān ê sî-ki, Mexico ap-chè liáu Texas ê hoán-khòng, kî-tiong Mexico chóng-thóng Antonio López de Santa Anna chhōa kun tī Alamo chi Chiàn (Battle of the Alamo) tiong phah pāi Texas kun.

1836 nî 3 goe̍h 2 hō ,Texas-lâng khui-hōe chhiam-sú To̍k-li̍p Soan-giân, kiàn-li̍p Texas Kiōng-hô-kok. Liáu-āu, keng-kòe kúi lé-pài ê thè-kun, Sam Houston niá-chhōa ê Texas kun-tūi tī San Jacinto chi Chiàn phah-iâⁿ Santa Anna ê jîn-bé, jī-chhiá lia̍h khí Santa Anna kiông-pek i chhiam Velasco TTiâu-iok lâi kiat-so̍k chiàn-cheng.

To̍k-li̍p ê Texas chèng-tī siōng hun chò tùi-li̍p ê nn̄g phài, chi̍t pêng sī Mirabeau B. Lamar chhōa-thâu, chú-tiuⁿ î-chhî to̍k-li̍p, kóaⁿ cháu goân-chū-bîn, jī-chhiá tùi gōa khok-chhiong léng-thó͘. Lēng-gōa chi̍t pêng sī Sam Houston chhoā-thâu, chú-tiuⁿ ka-ji̍p Bí-kok, jī-chhiá kap goân-chū-bîn chò-hóe seng-oa̍h.

Mexico tī 1842 nî hiòng Texas nn̄g piàn hoat-peng koh sêng-kong chiàm-niá San Antonio, m̄-koh bô î-chhî chiàn-kó. Chóng--sī Texas kiông-hô-kok hông-gū siōng chia̍h-la̍t ê chōng-hóng, ka-kiông in ka-ji̍p Bí-kok ê su-kiû.

1844 nî, chú-tiuⁿ khip-siu Texas ê James K. Polk tòng sóaⁿ Bí-kok chóng-thóng, 1845 nî 12 goe̍h 29, kok-hōe tông-ì siat Texas chò Bí-kok chi̍t chiu. Tông-sî, Mexico kap Bí-kok chhiat tn̄g gōa-kau koan-hē, nn̄g kok tùi Texas ê pian-kài chú-tiuⁿ chhiong-tu̍t.

1860 nî, Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn khai-sí, hit-tong-sî chiu lāi 30 pha ê jîn-kháu sī o͘-lâng, in tōa-hūn lóng sī lô͘-lē. 1861 nî 1 goe̍h 28, tī Austin ê hōe-gī, lâm-hong koat-tēng thoat-lî Bí-kok. 2 goe̍h 23 Texas ka-tī mā tâu-phiò thong-kòe chit hāng koat-tēng, 3 goe̍h sî ka-ji̍p America Liân-bêng Kok.

1900 nî, Texas tú tio̍h Bí-kok le̍k-sú siōng sí-bông siāng giâm-tiōng ê hong-thai Galveston.

20 sè-kí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1901 nî 1 goe̍h 10 ji̍t, chiu lāi thâu chi̍t ê iû-chhéⁿ Spindletop khai-siat, liáu-āu, sī Texas chio̍h-iû sán-gia̍p ê heng-khí; in-ê khai-chhái liōng āu-bóe tī 1972 nî tat kàu le̍k-sú ko-tiám.

Tē-jī-chhù Sè-kài Tāi-chiàn sî-kî, liân-pang chèng-hú tī Texas tōa-liōng khai-siat kun-su siat-si, lēng-gōa pún chiu ū 75 bān lâng ka-ki̍p kun-tūi. 1961 nî, NASA koh tī kun-sū sán-gia̍p hoat-ta̍t ê Huston khí-chō chài-lâng thài-khong tiong-sim (1973 nî hō-miâ Lyndon B. Johnson Thài-khong Tiong-sim).

1963 nî 11 goe̍h 22 ji̍t, Bí-kok chóng-thóng John F. KennedyDallas hong àm-sat.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiàu Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k ê kou-sǹg, Texas 2014 nî chóng jîn-kháu ū 26,956,958 lâng.[7]

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Texas tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 1,648,036 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[8]

Pún chiu ê chio̍h-iû sán-liōng tī 2015 nî 6 goe̍h ū 106,843 chheng-tháng (thousand barrels), tī Bí-kok kok-chiu lāi pâi-miâ tē-1.[9]

Texas ê chhân-hn̂g biān-chek, kap ka-thiok sán-chhut tī Bí-kok mā sī pâi thâu miâ. Chhī-gû sī chiu lāi siāng hoat-ta̍t ê lông-sán. Lông-chok-bu̍t hong-bīn, mî-hoe sán-liōng mā sī Bí-kok tē it. Kî-tha pì-jû hî-gia̍p, khòng-gia̍p, âng-bûn-thô͘, giâm-sán téng-téng, Texas mā sī choân-kok chhōa-thâu--ê.

21 sè-kì í-lâi, Texas keng-le̍k khiàm-chúi būn-tê, lông-gia̍p siū bōe chió sún-sit.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Texas — Languages. MLA. Retrieved April 15, 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Facts (2008–2009 ed.). Texas Almanac. 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008. 
  3. Environment (2008–2009 ed.). Texas Almanac. 2008. Archived from the original on March 17, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008. 
  4. Population Data for Texas Counties, 2015. Texas Department of State Health Services. Tī March 20, 2015 khoàⁿ--ê.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Elevations and Distances in the United States. United States Geological Survey (2001). Tī October 24, 2011 khoàⁿ--ê.
  6. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  7. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2014/tables/NST-EST2014-01.csv
  8. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Texas, FRED.
  9. Rankings: Crude Oil Production, June 2015 (thousand barrels), U.S. Energy Information Administration.